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A vocabulary (also known as a lexicon) is a phối of words, typically the phối in a language or the phối known vĩ đại an individual. The word vocabulary originated from the Latin vocabulum, meaning "a word, name." It forms an essential component of language and communication, helping convey thoughts, ideas, emotions, and information. Vocabulary can be oral, written, or signed and can be categorized into two main types: active vocabulary (words one uses regularly) and passive vocabulary (words one recognizes but doesn't use often). An individual's vocabulary continually evolves through various methods, including direct instruction, independent reading, and natural language exposure, but it can also shrink due vĩ đại forgetting, trauma, or disease. Furthermore, vocabulary is a significant focus of study across various disciplines, lượt thích linguistics, education, psychology, and artificial intelligence. Vocabulary is not limited vĩ đại single words; it also encompasses multi-word units known as collocations, idioms, and other types of phraseology. Acquiring an adequate vocabulary is one of the largest challenges in learning a second language.

Definitions and usage[edit]

General Definition[edit]

One's vocabulary typically refers vĩ đại the phối of words that an individual knows and uses in a particular language.[1] It is a fundamental aspect of language acquisition and literacy development.


In linguistics, vocabulary refers vĩ đại all the words in a language or in a person's lexical repertoire. It encompasses both a speaker's passive vocabulary, which includes the words they recognize or understand, and their active vocabulary, which includes the words they use regularly in speech and writing.[2]


In the context of education, vocabulary refers vĩ đại the body toàn thân of words, including their meanings and use, that a student learns and uses. Vocabulary acquisition is a central aspect of language education, as it directly impacts reading comprehension, expressive and receptive language skills, and academic achievement.[3]


Within psychology, especially cognitive psychology, vocabulary is understood as a measure of language processing and cognitive development. It can serve as an indicator of intellectual ability or cognitive status, with vocabulary tests often forming part of intelligence and neuropsychological assessments.[4]

Computational Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence[edit]

In computational linguistics and artificial intelligence, a vocabulary is a predetermined phối of words used for natural language processing tasks, such as speech recognition or text analysis. In machine learning models, the vocabulary is the phối of unique words from the training dataset, which forms the basis for feature extraction and model training.[5]


In semiotics, vocabulary refers vĩ đại the complete phối of symbols and signs in a sign system or a text, extending the definition beyond purely verbal communication vĩ đại encompass other forms of symbolic communication.[6]

Definition of "word"[edit]

Word has a variety of meanings, and our understand of ideas such as vocabulary size differ depending on the definition used.

The most common definition equates words with lemmas (the inflected or dictionary form; this includes walk, but not walks, walked or walking). Most of the time lemmas tự not include proper nouns (names of people, places, companies, etc.). Another definition often used in research of vocabulary size is that of word family. These are all the words that can be derived from a ground word (e.g., the words effortless, effortlessly, effortful, effortfully are all part of the word family effort). Estimates of vocabulary size range from as high as 200 thousand vĩ đại as low as 10 thousand, depending on the definition used.[7]

Type–token distinction[edit]

The type-token distinction is a concept in linguistics that pertains vĩ đại the counting or measuring of words in a text. It's useful for studying language and discourse, assessing complexity and richness of a vocabulary, or for certain computational applications.

The token count in a text is the total number of words, without any consideration of their uniqueness. Each individual occurrence of a word is counted separately, sánh if a word repeats, each instance is counted. For example, in the sentence I heard you when you called your son, there are eight tokens. This is because there are eight individual words (I, heard, you, when, you, called, your, son).

The type count includes unique words only, and usually, this is unique lemmas. If a lemma appears multiple times in a text, it is only counted once in a type count. So, in the same sentence I heard you when you called your son, there are six types. This is because there are six unique lemmas in the sentence (I, heard, you, when, called, son). The lemma you is only counted once despite appearing three times in the sentence as you, you, and your.

Vocabulary in an individual[edit]

Productive and receptive knowledge[edit]

The first major change distinction that must be made when evaluating word knowledge is whether the knowledge is productive (also called achieve or active) or receptive (also called receive or passive); even within those opposing categories, there is often no clear distinction. Words that are generally understood when heard or read or seen constitute a person's receptive vocabulary. These words may range from well known vĩ đại barely known (see degree of knowledge below). A person's receptive vocabulary is usually the larger of the two. For example, although a young child may not yet be able vĩ đại speak, write, or sign, they may be able vĩ đại follow simple commands and appear vĩ đại understand a good portion of the language vĩ đại which they are exposed. In this case, the child's receptive vocabulary is likely tens, if not hundreds of words, but their active vocabulary is zero. When that child learns vĩ đại speak or sign, however, the child's active vocabulary begins vĩ đại increase. It is also possible for the productive vocabulary vĩ đại be larger than thở the receptive vocabulary, for example in a second-language learner who has learned words through study rather than thở exposure, and can produce them, but has difficulty recognizing them in conversation.

Productive vocabulary, therefore, generally refers vĩ đại words that can be produced within an appropriate context and match the intended meaning of the speaker or signer. As with receptive vocabulary, however, there are many degrees at which a particular word may be considered part of an active vocabulary. Knowing how vĩ đại pronounce, sign, or write a word does not necessarily mean that the word that has been used correctly or accurately reflects the intended message; but it does reflect a minimal amount of productive knowledge.

Degree of knowledge[edit]

Within the receptive–productive distinction lies a range of abilities that are often referred vĩ đại as degree of knowledge. This simply indicates that a word gradually enters a person's vocabulary over a period of time as more aspects of word knowledge are learnt. Roughly, these stages could be described as:

  1. Never encountered the word.
  2. Heard the word, but cannot define it.
  3. Recognizes the word due vĩ đại context or tone of voice.
  4. Able vĩ đại use the word and understand the general and/or intended meaning, but cannot clearly explain it.
  5. Fluent with the word – its use and definition.

Depth of knowledge[edit]

The differing degrees of word knowledge imply a greater depth of knowledge, but the process is more complex than thở that. There are many facets vĩ đại knowing a word, some of which are not hierarchical sánh their acquisition does not necessarily follow a linear progression suggested by degree of knowledge. Several frameworks of word knowledge have been proposed vĩ đại better operationalise this concept. One such framework includes nine facets:

  1. orthography – written form
  2. phonology – spoken form
  3. reference – meaning
  4. semantics – concept and reference
  5. register – appropriacy of use or register
  6. collocation – lexical neighbours
  7. word associations
  8. syntax – grammatical function
  9. morphology – word parts

Types of vocabulary[edit]

Listed in order of most ample vĩ đại most limited:[8][9]

Reading vocabulary[edit]

A person's reading vocabulary is all the words recognized when reading. This class of vocabulary is generally the most ample, as new words are more commonly encountered when reading than thở when listening.

Listening vocabulary[edit]

A person's listening vocabulary comprises the words recognized when listening vĩ đại speech. Cues such as the speaker's tone and gestures, the topic of discussion, and the conversation's social context may convey the meaning of an unfamiliar word.

Speaking vocabulary[edit]

A person's speaking vocabulary comprises the words used in speech and is generally a subset of the listening vocabulary. Due vĩ đại the spontaneous nature of speech, words are often misused slightly and unintentionally, but facial expressions and tone of voice can compensate for this misuse.

Writing vocabulary[edit]

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The written word appears in registers as different as formal essays and social truyền thông feeds. While many written words rarely appear in speech, a person's written vocabulary is generally limited by preference and context: a writer may prefer one synonym over another, and they will be unlikely vĩ đại use technical vocabulary relating vĩ đại a subject in which they have no interest or knowledge.

Final vocabulary[edit]

The American philosopher Richard Rorty characterized a person's "final vocabulary" as follows:

All human beings carry about a phối of words which they employ vĩ đại justify their actions, their beliefs, and their lives. These are the words in which we formulate praise of our friends and contempt for our enemies, our long-term projects, our deepest self-doubts and our highest hopes… I shall Điện thoại tư vấn these words a person's "final vocabulary". Those words are as far as he can go with language; beyond them is only helpless passivity or a resort vĩ đại force. (Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity p. 73)[10]

Vocabulary growth[edit]

During its infancy, a child instinctively builds a vocabulary. Infants imitate words that they hear and then associate those words with objects and actions. This is the listening vocabulary. The speaking vocabulary follows, as a child's thoughts become more reliant on their ability vĩ đại self-express without relying on gestures or babbling. Once the reading and writing vocabularies start vĩ đại develop, through questions and education, the child starts vĩ đại discover the anomalies and irregularities of language.

In first grade, a child who can read learns about twice as many words as one who cannot. Generally, this gap does not narrow later. This results in a wide range of vocabulary by age five or six, when an English-speaking child will have learned about 1500 words.[11]

Vocabulary grows throughout one's life. Between the ages of đôi mươi and 60, people learn about 6,000 more lemmas, or one every other day.[12] An average 20-year-old knows 42,000 lemmas coming from 11,100 word families.[12] People expand their vocabularies by e.g. reading, playing word games, and participating in vocabulary-related programs. Exposure vĩ đại traditional print truyền thông teaches correct spelling and vocabulary, while exposure vĩ đại text messaging leads vĩ đại more relaxed word acceptability constraints.[13]


  • An extensive vocabulary sida expression and communication.
  • Vocabulary size has been directly linked vĩ đại reading comprehension.[14]
  • Linguistic vocabulary is synonymous with thinking vocabulary.[14]
  • A person may be judged by others based on their vocabulary.
  • Wilkins (1972) said, "Without grammar, very little can be conveyed; without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed."[15]

Vocabulary size[edit]

Native-language vocabulary[edit]

Estimating average vocabulary size poses various difficulties and limitations due vĩ đại the different definitions and methods employed such as what is the word, what is vĩ đại know a word, what sample dictionaries were used, how tests were conducted, and sánh on.[12][16][17][18] Native speakers' vocabularies also vary widely within a language, and are dependent on the level of the speaker's education.

As a result, estimates vary from 10,000-17,000 word families[16][19] or 17,000-42,000 dictionary words for young adult native speakers of English.[12][17]

A năm nhâm thìn study shows that 20-year-old English native speakers recognize on average 42,000 lemmas, ranging from 27,100 for the lowest 5% of the population vĩ đại 51,700 lemmas for the highest 5%. These lemmas come from 6,100 word families in the lowest 5% of the population and 14,900 word families in the highest 5%. 60-year-olds know on average 6,000 lemmas more. [12]

According vĩ đại another, earlier 1995 study junior-high students would be able vĩ đại recognize the meanings of about 10,000–12,000 words, whereas for college students this number grows up vĩ đại about 12,000–17,000 and for elderly adults up vĩ đại about 17,000 or more.[20]

For native speakers of German, average absolute vocabulary sizes range from 5,900 lemmas in first grade vĩ đại 73,000 for adults.[21]

Foreign-language vocabulary[edit]

The effects of vocabulary size on language comprehension[edit]

The knowledge of the 3000 most frequent English word families or the 5000 most frequent words provides 95% vocabulary coverage of spoken discourse.[22] For minimal reading comprehension a threshold of 3,000 word families (5,000 lexical items) was suggested[23][24] and for reading for pleasure 5,000 word families (8,000 lexical items) are required.[25] An "optimal" threshold of 8,000 word families yields the coverage of 98% (including proper nouns).[24]

Second language vocabulary acquisition[edit]

Learning vocabulary is one of the first steps in learning a second language, but a learner never finishes vocabulary acquisition. Whether in one's native language or a second language, the acquisition of new vocabulary is an ongoing process. There are many techniques that help one acquire new vocabulary.


Although memorization can be seen as tedious or boring, associating one word in the native language with the corresponding word in the second language until memorized is considered one of the best methods of vocabulary acquisition. By the time students reach adulthood, they generally have gathered a number of personalized memorization methods. Although many argue that memorization does not typically require the complex cognitive processing that increases retention (Sagarra and Alba, 2006),[26] it does typically require a large amount of repetition, and spaced repetition with flashcards is an established method for memorization, particularly used for vocabulary acquisition in computer-assisted language learning. Other methods typically require more time and longer vĩ đại recall.

Some words cannot be easily linked through association or other methods. When a word in the second language is phonologically or visually similar vĩ đại a word in the native language, one often assumes they also share similar meanings. Though this is frequently the case, it is not always true. When faced with a false friend, memorization and repetition are the keys vĩ đại mastery. If a second language learner relies solely on word associations vĩ đại learn new vocabulary, that person will have a very difficult time mastering false friends. When large amounts of vocabulary must be acquired in a limited amount of time, when the learner needs vĩ đại recall information quickly, when words represent abstract concepts or are difficult vĩ đại picture in a mental image, or when discriminating between false friends, rote memorization is the method vĩ đại use. A neural network model of novel word learning across orthographies, accounting for L1-specific memorization abilities of L2-learners has recently been introduced (Hadzibeganovic and Cannas, 2009).[27]

The từ khoá method[edit]

One way of learning vocabulary is vĩ đại use mnemonic devices or vĩ đại create associations between words, this is known as the "keyword method" (Sagarra and Alba, 2006).[26] It also takes a long time vĩ đại implement — and takes a long time vĩ đại recollect — but because it makes a few new strange ideas connect it may help in learning.[26] Also it presumably does not conflict with Paivio's dual coding system[28] because it uses visual and verbal mental faculties. However, this is still best used for words that represent concrete things, as abstract concepts are more difficult vĩ đại remember.[26]

Word lists[edit]

Several word lists have been developed vĩ đại provide people with a limited vocabulary for rapid language proficiency or for effective communication. These include Basic English (850 words), Special English (1,500 words), General Service List (2,000 words), and Academic Word List. Some learner's dictionaries have developed defining vocabularies which contain only most common and basic words. As a result, word definitions in such dictionaries can be understood even by learners with a limited vocabulary.[29][30][31] Some publishers produce dictionaries based on word frequency[32] or thematic groups.[33][34][35]

The Swadesh list was made for investigation in linguistics.

Focal vocabulary[edit]

Focal vocabulary is a specialized phối of terms and distinctions that is particularly important vĩ đại a certain group: those with a particular focus of experience or activity. A lexicon, or vocabulary, is a language's dictionary: its phối of names for things, events, and ideas. Some linguists believe that lexicon influences people's perception of things, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis. For example, the Nuer of Sudan have an elaborate vocabulary vĩ đại describe cattle. The Nuer have dozens of names for cattle because of the cattle's particular histories, economies, and environments[clarification needed]. This kind of comparison has elicited some linguistic controversy, as with the number of "Eskimo words for snow". English speakers with relevant specialised knowledge can also display elaborate and precise vocabularies for snow and cattle when the need arises.[36][37]

See also[edit]

  • Bilingual lexical access
  • Differences between American and British English (vocabulary)
  • Language proficiency: The ability of an individual vĩ đại speak or perform in an acquired language
  • Lexicon
  • Longest word in English: Many of the longest words in the English language
  • Mental lexicon


  1. ^ "Vocabulary". Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ Matthews, Peter (2014). The concise Oxford dictionary of linguistics. Oxford paperback reference (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-19-967512-8.
  3. ^ Grabe, William; Stoller, Fredricka L. (18 January 2018), "Teaching Vocabulary for Reading Success", The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 1–7, retrieved 18 May 2023
  4. ^ Corsini, Raymond J. (2002). The dictionary of psychology. New York: Brunner-Routledge. ISBN 978-1-58391-328-4.
  5. ^ Collin, S. M. H. (ed.). Dictionary of Computing (6th ed.). Bloomsbury.
  6. ^ Danesi, Marcel (2000). Encyclopedic dictionary of semiotics, truyền thông, and communications. Toronto studies in semiotics. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-8329-6.
  7. ^ Brysbaert M, Stevens M, Mandera Phường and Keuleers E (2016) How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant's Age. Front. Psychol. 7:1116. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116 [1]
  8. ^ Barnhart, Clarence L. (1968).
  9. ^ The World Book Dictionary. Clarence L. Barnhart. 1968 Edition. Published by Thorndike-Barnhart, Chicago, Illinois.
  10. ^ "Final vocabulary". OpenLearn. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  11. ^ "Vocabulary". Sebastian Wren, Ph.D. BalancedReading.com http://www.balancedreading.com/vocabulary.html
  12. ^ a b c d e Brysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel (29 July 2016). "How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant's Age". Frontiers in Psychology. 7: 1116. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116. PMC 4965448. PMID 27524974.
  13. ^ Joan H. Lee (2011). What does txting tự 2 language: The influences of exposure vĩ đại messaging and print truyền thông on acceptability constraints (PDF) (Master's thesis). University of Calgary. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
    • "Texting affects ability vĩ đại interpret words". University of Calgary. 17 February 2012. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012.
  14. ^ a b Stahl, Steven A. Vocabulary Development. Cambridge: Brookline Books, 1999. p. 3. "The Cognitive Foundations of Learning vĩ đại Read: A Framework", Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, [2], p. 14.
  15. ^ Wilkins, David A. (1972). Linguistics in Language Teaching. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 111.
  16. ^ a b Goulden, Robin; Nation, Paul; Read, John (1 December 1990). "How Large Can a Receptive Vocabulary Be?" (PDF). Applied Linguistics. 11 (4): 341–363. doi:10.1093/applin/11.4.341.
  17. ^ a b D'Anna, Catherine; Zechmeister, Eugene; Hall, James (1 March 1991). "Toward a meaningful definition of vocabulary size". Journal of Literacy Research. 23 (1): 109–122. doi:10.1080/10862969109547729. S2CID 122864817.
  18. ^ Nation, I. S. Phường. (1993). "Using dictionaries vĩ đại estimate vocabulary size: essential, but rarely followed, procedures" (PDF). Language Testing. 10 (1): 27–40. doi:10.1177/026553229301000102. S2CID 145331394.
  19. ^ Milton, James; Treffers-Daller, Jeanine (29 January 2013). "Vocabulary size revisited: the liên kết between vocabulary size and academic achievement". Applied Linguistics Review. 4 (1): 151–172. doi:10.1515/applirev-2013-0007. S2CID 59930869.
  20. ^ Zechmeister, Eugene; Chronis, Andrea; Cull, William; D'Anna, Catherine; Healy, Noreen (1 June 1995). "Growth of a functionally important lexicon". Journal of Literacy Research. 27 (2): 201–212. doi:10.1080/10862969509547878. S2CID 145149827.
  21. ^
  22. ^ Adolphs, Svenja; Schmitt, Norbert (2003). "Lexical Coverage of Spoken Discourse" (PDF). Applied Linguistics. 24 (4): 425–438. doi:10.1093/applin/24.4.425.
  23. ^ Laufer, Batia (1992). "How Much Lexis is Necessary for Reading Comprehension?". In Bejoint, H.; Arnaud, Phường. (eds.). Vocabulary and Applied Linguistics. Macmillan. pp. 126–132.
  24. ^ a b Laufer, Batia; Ravenhorst-Kalovski, Geke C. (April 2010). "Lexical threshold revisited: Lexical text coverage, learners' vocabulary size and reading comprehension" (PDF). Reading in a Foreign Language. 22 (1): 15–30.
  25. ^ Hirsh, D.; Nation, I.S.P. (1992). "What vocabulary size is needed vĩ đại read unsimplified texts for pleasure?" (PDF). Reading in a Foreign Language. 8 (2): 689–696.
  26. ^ a b c d Sagarra, Nuria and Alba, Matthew. (2006). "The Key Is in the Keyword: L2 Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning Learners of Spanish". The Modern Language Journal, 90, ii. pp. 228–243.
  27. ^ Hadzibeganovic, Tarik; Cannas, Sergio A (2009). "A Tsallis' statistics-based neural network model for novel word learning". Physica A. 388 (5): 732–746. Bibcode:2009PhyA..388..732H. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2008.10.042.
  28. ^ Paivio, A. (1986). Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
  29. ^ Bogaards, Paul (July 2010). "The evolution of learners' dictionaries and Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary" (PDF). Kernerman Dictionary News (18): 6–15.
  30. ^ "The Oxford 3000". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.
  31. ^ "Clear Definitions". Macmillan Dictionary.
  32. ^ Routledge Frequency Dictionaries
  33. ^ (in German) Langenscheidt Grundwortschatz
  34. ^ (in German) Langenscheidt Grund- und Aufbauwortschatz
  35. ^ (in German) Hueber Grundwortschatz
  36. ^ Miller (1989)
  37. ^ Lenkeit


  • Barnhart, Clarence Lewis (ed.) (1968). The World Book Dictionary. Chicago: Thorndike-Barnhart, OCLC 437494
  • Brysbaert M, Stevens M, Mandera Phường and Keuleers E (2016) How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant's Age. Front. Psychol. 7:1116. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116.
  • Flynn, James Robert (2008). Where have all the liberals gone? : race, class, and ideals in America. Cambridge University Press; 1st edition. ISBN 978-0-521-49431-1 OCLC 231580885
  • Lenkeit, Roberta Edwards (2007) Introducing cultural anthropology Boston: McGraw-Hill (3rd. ed.) OCLC 64230435
  • Liu, Na; Nation, I. S. Phường. (1985). "Factors affecting guessing vocabulary in context" (PDF). RELC Journal. 16: 33–42. doi:10.1177/003368828501600103. S2CID 145695274.
  • Miller, Barbara D. (1999). Cultural Anthropology(4th ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon, p. 315 OCLC 39101950
  • Schonell, Sir Fred Joyce, Ivor G. Meddleton and B. A. Shaw, A study of the oral vocabulary of adults : an investigation into the spoken vocabulary of the Australian worker, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane, 1956. OCLC 606593777
  • West, Michael (1953). A general service list of English words, with semantic frequencies and a supplementary word-list for the writing of popular science and technology London, New York: Longman, Green OCLC 318957

External links[edit]

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Look up vocabulary in Wiktionary, the miễn phí dictionary.

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  • Bibliography on vocabulary I.S.P. Nation's extensive collection of research on vocabulary.
  • Vocabulary Acquisition Research Group Archive An bibliographic database on vocabulary acquisition at Swansea University.