From Wikipedia, the không tính phí encyclopedia
Bạn đang xem: sophisticated là gì
Sophistication has come to tướng mean a few things, but its original uses were a pejorative, derived from sophist, and included the idea of admixture or adulteration. Today, as researched by Faye Hammill, it is common as a measure of refinement—displaying good taste, wisdom and subtlety rather kêu ca crudeness, stupidity and vulgarity. In the perception of social class, sophistication can be linked with concepts such as status, privilege and superiority.
Scope of sophistication
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to tướng it. (March 2011)
In social terms, the connotations of sophistication depends on whether one is an insider or an outsider of the sophisticated class. Sophistication can be seen as "a khuông of snobbery," or as "among the most desirable of human qualities."
A study of style conveys an idea of the range of possible elements through which one can demonstrate sophistication in elegance and fashion, covering the art of "[...] the shoemaker, the hairdresser, the cosmetologist, the cookbook writers, the chef, the diamond merchant, the couturieres, and the fashion queens, the inventors of the folding umbrella ... and of champagne."
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to tướng it. (March 2011)
In Ancient Greece, sophia was the special insight of poets and prophets. This then became the wisdom of philosophers such as sophists. But their use of rhetoric to tướng win arguments gave sophistication a derogatory quality. Sophistry was then the art of misleading.
The system of modern Western sophistication has its roots in France, arguably helped along its way by the policies of King Louis XIV (reigned 1643–1715).
Xem thêm: hooker là gì
The English regarded sophistication as decadent and deceptive until the aristocratic sensibilities and refined elegance of Regency dandies such as Beau Brummell (1778–1840) became fashionable and admired.
Types of sophistication
Recognised varieties of sophistication include:
- cultural sophistication(or culturedness)
- intellectual sophistication
In the analysis of humor, Victor Raskin distinguishes "two types of sophistication: limited access or allusive knowledge, and complex processing".
Methods of acquiring the appearance of personal sophistication include:
- educational travel – note the function of the traditional Grand Tour for European aesthetes
- Finishing school
On a societal level commentators can associate various forms of sophistication with civilization.
- ^ Hammill, Faye (2010). Sophistication: A Literary and Cultural History.
- ^ Firat, A. Fuat; Dholakia, Nikhilesh (2003). Consuming people: from political economy to tướng theaters of consumption. Routledge interpretive marketing research series. Routledge. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-415-31620-0.
In every culture ideas develop among the different social classes as to tướng what signifies status, sophistication, privilege, and superiority.
Holleran, Andrew (January 2001). "Staying a Step Ahead". Out. Here Publishing. 9 (7): 38–80. ISSN 1062-7928. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
[...] sophistication is a khuông of snobbery – it's based above all on knowing something another person does not.
DeJean, Joan (2003). The essence of style: how the French invented high fashion, fine food, chic cafes, style, sophistication, and glamour. New York: Free Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-7432-6413-6.
So here are the stories of the shoemaker, the hairdresser, the cosmetologist, the cookbook writers, the chef, the diamond merchant, the couturieres, and the fashion queens, the inventors of the folding umbrella ... and of champagne. Together they created a style that still shapes our ideas of elegance, sophistication, and luxury.
- ^ Mark Backman (1991), "The Roots of Our Sophistication", Sophistication, Ox Bow Press, ISBN 978-0-918024-91-6
For example: DeJean, Joan (2003). The essence of style: how the French invented high fashion, fine food, chic cafes, style, sophistication, and glamour. New York: Free Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7432-6413-6.
In the sixteenth century, the French were not thought of as the most elegant or the most sophisticated European nation. By the early eighteenth century, however, people all over Europe declared that 'the French are stylish' or 'the French know good food,' just as they said, 'the Dutch are clean.' France had acquired a sort of monopoly on culture, style, and luxury living, a position that it has occupied ever since. [...] Beginning in the late seventeenth century, travelers were saying what novelists and filmmakers are still repeating: travel to tướng Paris was guaranteed to tướng add a touch of magic to tướng every life. [...] [F]rom this moment on, that touch of magic became widely desired: elegance, luxury, and sophistication became factors to tướng be reckoned with.
- ^ Deborah Longworth (2 Sep 2010), "Sophistication: A Literary and Cultural History", Times Higher Education
Holt, Douglas; Douglas Cameron (2010). Cultural Strategy: Using Innovative Ideologies to tướng Build Breakthrough Brands. Oxford University Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0-19-958740-7. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
The pursuit of cultural sophistication (Bourdieu's cultural capital) was until recently a niche phenomenon in America. It existed mainly in 'old-money' families, which dominated elite breeding grounds (prep schools, Ivy league universities, elite liberal arts colleges), and in the small Bohemian circles in the country's biggest cities. [...] The transformation of the American class dynamic from a single-minded striving for economic abundance to tướng a multi-dimensional striving for sophistication in addition to tướng abundance – a mixture of status pursuits more typical of Europe – was seeded in the 1960s. = adam markovich
For example:Hodgson, Marshall G. S (1974). The venture of Islam: conscience and history in a world civilization. Vol. 3. University of Chicago Press. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-226-34684-7. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
But the mutakallim's universe of discourse now included the whole range of Falsafah with its intellectual sophistication.
- ^ Attardo, Salvatore (1994). Linguistic theories of humor. Humor research. Vol. 1. Walter de Gruyter. p. 216. ISBN 978-3-11-014255-6. Retrieved 2011-02-21.
Warneke, Sara (1995). Images of the educational traveller in early modern England. Brill's studies in intellectual history. Vol. 58. Brill. p. 242. ISBN 978-90-04-10126-5. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
By the second half of the seventeenth century the experience of the Grand Tour marked the socially successful gentleman. In 1678 Gailhard noted that many travelled Englishmen regarded their home-bred compatriots as their social inferiors and affected foreign accents, fashions and mannerisms in order to tướng demonstrate their sophistication.
Mackintosh, Prudence (January 1986). "Little Women". Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications. 14 (1): 154. ISSN 0148-7736. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
1913 [–] Miss Ela Hockaday opens a finishing school in Dallas and single-handedly creates the Texas ideal of what a lady should be. [...] [D]aughters from remote West Texas ranches gained a measure of sophistication.
Callahan, Mary Phường. (2004), "Making Myanmars: Language, Territory and Belonging in Post-Socialist Burma", in Migdal, Joel S. (ed.), Boundaries and belonging: states and societies in the struggle to tướng shape identities and local practices, Cambridge University Press, pp. 99–120, ISBN 978-0-521-83566-4, retrieved 2011-03-13,
This centralization led to tướng a hierarchical ordering of territory and populations that located sophistication, civilization, and power in the center. Distance from Rangoon was associated with political insignificance and social backwardness.
Hernández, Mark A (2006). Figural conquistadors: rewriting the New World's discovery and conquest in Mexican and River Plate novels of the 1980s and 1990s. The Bucknell studies in Latin American literature and theory. Bucknell University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8387-5645-4. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
And by showing the sophistication of Aztec civilization, the editor challenges the premise upon which the conquest was justified and legitimated.
Xem thêm: hearsay là gì
- Litvak, Joseph (1997). "Kiss Me, Stupid: Sophistication and Snobbery in Vanity Fair". Strange gourmets: sophistication, theory, and the novel. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822320169.
- M. Christman, Henry (1970). "Sophistication in America". A view of the Nation: an anthology, 1955–1959. Ayer Publishing. pp. 62–69. ISBN 9780836916201.