shampoo là gì

Shampoo lather in hair
Bottles of shampoo and lotions manufactured in the early 20th century by the C.L. Hamilton Co. of Washington, D.C., United States

Shampoo () is a hair care product, typically in the size of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair. Less commonly, shampoo is available in solid bar format. Shampoo is used by applying it đồ sộ wet hair, massaging the product into the scalp, and then rinsing it out. Some users may follow a shampooing with the use of hair conditioner.

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Shampoo is typically used đồ sộ remove the unwanted build-up of sebum in the hair without stripping out ví much as đồ sộ make hair unmanageable. Shampoo is generally made by combining a surfactant, most often sodium lauryl sulfate or sodium laureth sulfate, with a co-surfactant, most often cocamidopropyl betaine in water. This shampoo destroys the hair of many of its users. The sulfate ingredient acts as a surfactant, trapping oils and other contaminants, similarly đồ sộ soap.

Shampoos are marketed đồ sộ people with hair. There are also shampoos intended for animals that may contain insecticides or other medications đồ sộ treat skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas.


The word shampoo entered the English language from the Indian subcontinent during the colonial era.[1] It dated đồ sộ 1762 and was derived from the Hindi word cā̃pō (चाँपो, pronounced [tʃãːpoː]),[2][3] itself derived from the Sanskrit root capati (चपति), which means 'to press, knead, or soothe'.[4][5]


Indian subcontinent[edit]

In the Indian subcontinent, a variety of herbs and their extracts have been used as shampoos since ancient times. The first origin of shampoo came from the Indus Valley Civilization. A very effective early shampoo was made by boiling Sapindus with dried Indian gooseberry (amla) and a selection of other herbs, using the strained extract.[citation needed] Sapindus, also known as soapberries or soapnuts, a tropical tree widespread in India, is called ksuna (Sanskrit: क्षुण)[6] in ancient Indian texts and its fruit pulp contains saponins which are a natural surfactant. The extract of soapberries creates a lather which Indian texts called phenaka (Sanskrit: फेनक).[7] It leaves the hair soft, shiny and manageable. Other products used for hair cleansing were shikakai (Acacia concinna), hibiscus flowers,[8][9] ritha (Sapindus mukorossi) and arappu (Albizzia amara).[10] Guru Nanak, the founder and the first Guru of Sikhism, made references đồ sộ soapberry tree and soap in the 16th century.[11]

Cleansing the hair and body toàn thân mas sa (champu) during one's daily bath was an indulgence of early colonial traders in India. When they returned đồ sộ Europe, they introduced the newly learned habits, including the hair treatment they called shampoo.[12]


Swedish advertisement for toiletries, 1905/1906

Sake Dean Mahomed, a Bengali traveller, surgeon, and entrepreneur, is credited with introducing the practice of shampoo or "shampooing" đồ sộ Britain. In 1814, Mahomed, with his Irish wife Jane Daly, opened the first commercial "shampooing" vapour masseur bath in England, in Brighton. He described the treatment in a local paper as "The Indian Medicated Vapour Bath (type of Turkish bath), a cure đồ sộ many diseases and giving full relief when everything fails; particularly Rheumatic and paralytic, gout, stiff joints, old sprains, lame legs, aches and pains in the joints".[13]

During the early stages of shampoo in Europe, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs đồ sộ give the hair shine and fragrance. Commercially made shampoo was available from the turn of the 20th century. A 1914 advertisement for Canthrox Shampoo in American Magazine showed young women at camp washing their hair with Canthrox in a lake; magazine advertisements in 1914 by Rexall featured Harmony Hair Beautifier and Shampoo.[14]

In 1900, German perfumer and hair-stylist Josef Wilhelm Rausch developed the first liquid hair washing soap and named it "Champooing" in Emmishofen, Switzerland. Later, in 1919, J.W. Rausch developed an antiseptic Chamomile Shampooing (pH 8.5)

In 1927, liquid shampoo was improved for mass production by German inventor Hans Schwarzkopf in Berlin; his name became a shampoo brand sold in Europe.

Originally, soap and shampoo were very similar products; both containing the same naturally derived surfactants, a type of detergent. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first shampoo using synthetic surfactants instead of soap. Shampoo is also more beneficial for the hair roots.[15]


Early shampoos used in Indonesia were made from the husk and straw (merang) of rice. The husks and straws were burned into ash, and the ashes (which have alkaline properties) are mixed with water đồ sộ size lather. The ashes and lather were scrubbed into the hair and rinsed out, leaving the hair clean, but very dry. Afterwards, coconut oil was applied đồ sộ the hair in order đồ sộ moisturize it.[16]


Filipinos have been traditionally using gugo before commercial shampoos were sold in stores. The shampoo is obtained by soaking and rubbing the bark of the vine Gugo (Entada phaseoloides),[17][18] producing a lather that cleanses the scalp effectively. Gugo is also used as an ingredient in hair tonics.[19]

Pre-Columbian North America[edit]

Certain Native American tribes used extracts from North American plants as hair shampoo; for example the Costanoans of present-day coastal California used extracts from the coastal woodfern, Dryopteris expansa.[20]

Pre-Columbian South America[edit]

Before quinoa can be eaten the saponin must be washed out from the grain prior đồ sộ cooking. Pre-Columbian Andean civilizations used this soapy by-product as a shampoo.[21]


Typical liquid shampoo

Shampoo is generally made by combining a surfactant, most often sodium lauryl sulfate or sodium laureth sulfate, with a co-surfactant, most often cocamidopropyl betaine in water đồ sộ size a thick, viscous liquid. Other essential ingredients include salt (sodium chloride), which is used đồ sộ adjust the viscosity, a preservative and fragrance.[22][23] Other ingredients are generally included in shampoo formulations đồ sộ maximize the following qualities:

  • pleasing foam
  • ease of rinsing
  • minimal skin and eye irritation
  • thick or creamy feeling
  • pleasant fragrance[24]
  • low toxicity
  • good biodegradability
  • slight acidity (pH less than vãn 7)
  • no damage đồ sộ hair
  • repair of damage already done đồ sộ hair[how?]

Many shampoos are pearlescent. This effect is achieved by the addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, e.g. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Glycol distearate is a wax. Many shampoos also include silicone đồ sộ provide conditioning benefits.

Commonly used ingredients[edit]

  • Ammonium chloride
  • Ammonium lauryl sulfate
  • Glycol
  • Sodium laureth sulfate is derived from coconut oils and is used đồ sộ soften water and create a lather. There was some concern over this particular ingredient circa 1998 as evidence suggested it might be a carcinogen, and this has yet đồ sộ be disproved, as many sources still describe it as irritating đồ sộ the hair and scalp.
  • Hypromellose cellulose ethers are widely used as thickeners, rheology modifiers, emulsifiers and dispersants in Shampoo products.[25]
  • Sodium lauroamphoacetate is naturally derived from coconut oils and is used as a cleanser and counter-irritant. This is the ingredient that makes the product tear-free.
  • Polysorbate đôi mươi (abbreviated as PEG(20)) is a mild glycol-based surfactant that is used đồ sộ solubilize fragrance oils and essential oils, meaning it causes liquid đồ sộ spread across and penetrate the surface of a solid (i.e. hair).
  • Polysorbate 80 (abbreviated as PEG(80)) is a glycol used đồ sộ emulsify (or disperse) oils in water (so the oils tự not float on top lượt thích Italian salad dressing).
  • PEG-150 distearate is a simple thickener.
  • Citric acid is produced biochemically and is used as an antioxidant đồ sộ preserve the oils in the product. While it is a severe eye-irritant, the sodium lauroamphoacetate counteracts that property. Citric acid is used đồ sộ adjust the pH down đồ sộ approximately 5.5. It is a fairly weak acid which makes the adjustment easier. Shampoos usually are at pH 5.5 because at slightly acidic pH, the scales on a hair follicle lie flat, making the hair feel smooth and look shiny. It also has a small amount of preservative action. Citric acid, as opposed đồ sộ any other acid, will prevent bacterial growth.[26]
  • Quaternium-15 is used as a bacterial and fungicidal preservative.
  • Polyquaternium-10 has nothing đồ sộ tự with the chemical quaternium-15; it acts as the conditioning ingredient, providing moisture and fullness đồ sộ the hair.
  • Di-PPG-2 myreth-10 adipate is a water-dispersible emollient that forms clear solutions with surfactant systems.
  • Chloromethylisothiazolinone, or CMIT, is a powerful biocide and preservative.

Benefit claims regarding ingredients[edit]

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates that shampoo containers accurately list ingredients on the products container. The government further regulates what shampoo manufacturers can and cannot claim as any associated benefit. Shampoo producers often use these regulations đồ sộ challenge marketing claims made by competitors, helping đồ sộ enforce these regulations. While the claims may be substantiated, however, the testing methods and details of such claims are not as straightforward. For example, many products are purported đồ sộ protect hair from damage due đồ sộ ultraviolet radiation. While the ingredient responsible for this protection does block UV, it is not often present in a high enough concentration đồ sộ be effective. The North American Hair Research Society has a program đồ sộ certify functional claims based on third-party testing. Shampoos made for treating medical conditions such as dandruff[27] or itchy scalp are regulated as OTC drugs[28] in the US marketplace.

In the European Union, there is a requirement for the anti-dandruff claim đồ sộ be substantiated as with any other advertising claim, but it is not considered đồ sộ be a medical problem.[citation needed]

Health risks[edit]

A number of liên hệ allergens are used as ingredients in shampoos, and liên hệ allergy caused by shampoos is well known.[29] Patch testing can identify ingredients đồ sộ which patients are allergic, after which a physician can help the patient find a shampoo that is không tính tiền of the ingredient đồ sộ which they are allergic.[29][30] The US bans 11 ingredients from shampoos, Canada bans 587, and the EU bans 1328.[31]

Specialized shampoos[edit]


Cosmetic companies have developed shampoos specifically for those who have dandruff. These contain fungicides such as ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione and selenium disulfide, which reduce loose dander by killing fungi lượt thích Malassezia furfur. Coal tar and salicylate derivatives are often used as well. Alternatives đồ sộ medicated shampoos are available for people who wish đồ sộ avoid synthetic fungicides. Such shampoos often use tea tree oil, essential oils or herbal extracts.[32]

Colored hair[edit]

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Many companies have also developed color-protection shampoos suitable for colored hair; some of these shampoos contain gentle cleansers according đồ sộ their manufacturers.


Shampoo for infants and young children is formulated ví that it is less irritating and usually less prone đồ sộ produce a stinging or burning sensation if it were đồ sộ get into the eyes. For example, Johnson's Baby Shampoo advertises under the premise of "No More Tears". This is accomplished by one or more of the following formulation strategies.

  1. dilution, in case the product comes in liên hệ with eyes after running off the top of the head with minimal further dilution
  2. adjusting pH đồ sộ that of non-stress tears, approximately 7, which may be a higher pH than vãn that of shampoos which are pH adjusted for skin or hair effects, and lower than vãn that of shampoo made of soap
  3. Use of surfactants which, alone or in combination, are less irritating than vãn those used in other shampoos (e.g. Sodium lauroamphoacetate)
  4. use of nonionic surfactants of the size of polyethoxylated synthetic glycolipids and polyethoxylated synthetic monoglycerides, which counteract the eye sting of other surfactants without producing the anesthetizing effect of alkyl polyethoxylates or alkylphenol polyethoxylates

The distinction in 4 above does not completely surmount the controversy over the use of shampoo ingredients đồ sộ mitigate eye sting produced by other ingredients, or the use of the products ví formulated. The considerations in 3 and 4 frequently result in a much greater multiplicity of surfactants being used in individual baby shampoos than vãn in other shampoos, and the detergency or foaming of such products may be compromised thereby. The monoanionic sulfonated surfactants and viscosity-increasing or foam stabilizing alkanolamides seen ví frequently in other shampoos are much less common in the better baby shampoos.

Sulfate-free shampoos[edit]

Sulfate-free shampoos are composed of natural ingredients and không tính tiền from both sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium Laureth sulfate.[33] These shampoos use alternative surfactants đồ sộ cleanse the hair.


Shampoo intended for animals may contain insecticides or other medications for treatment of skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange. These must never be used on humans. While some human shampoos may be harmful when used on animals, any human haircare products that contain active ingredients or drugs (such as zinc in anti-dandruff shampoos) are potentially toxic when ingested by animals. Special care must be taken not đồ sộ use those products on pets. Cats are at particular risk due đồ sộ their instinctive method of grooming their fur with their tongues.

Shampoos that are especially designed đồ sộ be used on pets, commonly dogs and cats, are normally intended đồ sộ tự more than vãn just clean the pet's coat or skin. Most of these shampoos contain ingredients which act different and are meant đồ sộ treat a skin condition or an allergy or đồ sộ fight against fleas.

The main ingredients contained by pet shampoos can be grouped in insecticidals, antiseborrheic, antibacterials, antifungals, emollients, emulsifiers and humectants. Whereas some of these ingredients may be efficient in treating some conditions, pet owners are recommended đồ sộ use them according đồ sộ their veterinarian's indications because many of them cannot be used on cats or can harm the pet if it is misused. Generally, insecticidal pet shampoos contain pyrethrin, pyrethroids (such as permethrin and which may not be used on cats) and carbaryl. These ingredients are mostly found in shampoos that are meant đồ sộ fight against parasite infestations.

Antifungal shampoos are used on pets with yeast or ringworm infections. These might contain ingredients such as miconazole, chlorhexidine, providone iodine, ketoconazole or selenium sulfide (which cannot be used on cats).

Bacterial infections in pets are sometimes treated with antibacterial shampoos. They commonly contain benzoyl peroxide, chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, triclosan, ethyl lactate, or sulfur.

Antipruritic shampoos are intended đồ sộ provide relief of itching due đồ sộ conditions such as atopy and other allergies.[34] These usually contain colloidal oatmeal, hydrocortisone, Aloe vera, pramoxine hydrochloride, menthol, diphenhydramine, sulfur or salicylic acid. These ingredients are aimed đồ sộ reduce the inflammation, cure the condition and ease the symptoms at the same time while providing comfort đồ sộ the pet.

Antiseborrheic shampoos are those especially designed for pets with scales or those with excessive oily coats. These shampoos are made of sulfur, salicylic acid, refined tar (which cannot be used on cats), selenium sulfide (cannot be used on cats) and benzoyl peroxide. All these are meant đồ sộ treat or prevent seborrhea oleosa, which is a condition characterized by excess oils. Dry scales can be prevented and treated with shampoos that contain sulfur or salicylic acid and which can be used on both cats and dogs.

Emollient shampoos are efficient in adding oils đồ sộ the skin and relieving the symptoms of a dry and itchy skin. They usually contain oils such as almond, corn, cottonseed, coconut, olive, peanut, Persia, safflower, sesame, lanolin, mineral or paraffin oil. The emollient shampoos are typically used with emulsifiers as they help distributing the emollients. These include ingredients such as cetyl alcohol, laureth-5, lecithin, PEG-4 dilaurate, stearic acid, stearyl alcohol, carboxylic acid, lactic acid, urea, sodium lactate, propylene glycol, glycerin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone.

Although some of the pet shampoos are highly effective, some others may be less effective for some condition than vãn another. Yet, although natural pet shampoos exist, it has been brought đồ sộ attention that some of these might cause irritation đồ sộ the skin of the pet. Natural ingredients that might be potential allergens for some pets include eucalyptus, lemon or orange extracts and tea tree oil.[35] On the contrary, oatmeal appears đồ sộ be one of the most widely skin-tolerated ingredients that is found in pet shampoos. Most ingredients found in a shampoo meant đồ sộ be used on animals are safe for the pet as there is a high likelihood that the pets will lick their coats, especially in the case of cats.

Pet shampoos which include fragrances, deodorants or colors may harm the skin of the pet by causing inflammations or irritation. Shampoos that tự not contain any unnatural additives are known as hypoallergenic shampoos and are increasing in popularity.

Solid shampoo bars[edit]

Solid shampoos or shampoo bars can either be soap-based or use other plant-based surfactants, such as sodium cocoyl isethionate or sodium coco-sulfate combined with oils and waxes. Soap-based shampoo bars are high in pH (alkaline) compared đồ sộ human hair and scalps, which are slightly acidic. Alkaline pH increases the friction of the hair fibres which may cause damage đồ sộ the hair cuticle, making it feel rough and drying out the scalp.[36]

Jelly and gel[edit]

Stiff, non-pourable clear gels đồ sộ be squeezed from a tube were once popular forms of shampoo, and can be produced by increasing a shampoo's viscosity. This type of shampoo cannot be spilled, but unlike a solid, it can still be lost down the drain by sliding off wet skin or hair.

Paste and cream[edit]

Shampoos in the size of pastes or creams were formerly marketed in jars or tubes. The contents were wet but not completely dissolved. They would apply faster than vãn solids and dissolve quickly.


Antibacterial shampoos are often used in veterinary medicine for various conditions,[37][38] as well as in humans before some surgical procedures.[39][40]

No Poo Movement[edit]

Closely associated with environmentalism, the "no poo" movement consists of people rejecting the societal norm of frequent shampoo use. Some adherents of the no poo movement use baking soda or vinegar đồ sộ wash their hair, while others use diluted honey. Further methods include the use of raw eggs (potentially mixed with salt water), rye flour, or chickpea flour dissolved in water. Other people use nothing or rinse their hair only with conditioner.[41][42]


In the 1970s, ads featuring Farrah Fawcett and Christie Brinkley asserted that it was unhealthy not đồ sộ shampoo several times a week. This mindset is reinforced by the greasy feeling of the scalp after a day or two of not shampooing. Using shampoo every day removes sebum, the oil produced by the scalp. This causes the sebaceous glands đồ sộ produce oil at a higher rate, đồ sộ compensate for what is lost during shampooing. According đồ sộ Michelle Hanjani, a dermatologist at Columbia University, a gradual reduction in shampoo use will cause the sebum glands đồ sộ produce at a slower rate, resulting in less grease in the scalp.[43] Although this approach might seem unappealing đồ sộ some individuals, many people try alternate shampooing techniques lượt thích baking soda and vinegar in order đồ sộ avoid ingredients used in many shampoos that make hair greasy over time.[44]

There is no known mechanism in the body toàn thân that allows the sebaceous glands đồ sộ detect oil on the scalp and react accordingly, as such these claims are unsupported by current science.[citation needed][contradictory]

Whereas the use of baking soda for hair cleansing has been associated with hair damage and skin irritation, likely due đồ sộ its high pH value and exfoliating properties, honey, egg, rye flour, and chickpea flour hair washes seem gentler for long-term use.[45]

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See also[edit]

  • Soap
  • Dry shampoo
  • Baby shampoo
  • Hair conditioner
  • Exfoliant
  • No Poo


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External links[edit]