recruiting là gì

Recruitment poster for the UK army

Recruitment is the overall process of identifying, sourcing, screening, shortlisting, and interviewing candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization. Recruitment also is the process involved in choosing people for unpaid roles. Managers, human resource generalists and recruitment specialists may be tasked with carrying out recruitment, but in some cases public-sector employment, commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist tìm kiếm consultancies are used to lớn undertake parts of the process. Internet-based technologies which enhance all aspects of recruitment are now widespread, including the use of artificial intelligence (AI).[1]

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  • Job analysis for new jobs or substantially changed jobs. It might be undertaken to lớn document the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics (KSAOs) required or sought for the job. From these, the relevant information is captured in a person specification.[2]
  • Sourcing — attracting or identifying candidates
  • Screening and selection - picking, interviewing and hiring the right candidate.
A job fair in Athens, Greece


Sourcing is the use of one or more strategies to lớn attract and identify candidates to lớn fill job vacancies. It may involve internal and/or external recruitment advertising, using appropriate truyền thông such as job portals, local or national newspapers, social truyền thông, business truyền thông, specialist recruitment truyền thông, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, career fairs, or in a variety of ways via the mạng internet.

Alternatively, employers may use recruitment consultancies or agencies to lớn find otherwise scarce candidates—who, in many cases, may be nội dung in their current positions and are not actively looking to lớn move. This initial research for candidates—also called name generation—produces liên hệ information for potential candidates, whom the recruiter can then discreetly liên hệ and screen.[2]

Referral recruitment programs[edit]

Referral recruitment programs allow both outsiders and employees to lớn refer candidates for filling job openings. Online, they can be implemented by leveraging social networks.

Employee referral[edit]

An employee referral is a candidate recommended by an existing employee. This is sometimes referred to lớn as referral recruitment. Encouraging existing employees to lớn select and recruit suitable candidates results in:

  • Improved candidate quality ('fit'). Employee referrals allow existing employees to lớn screen, select and refer candidates, lowers staff attrition rate; candidates hired through referrals tend to lớn stay up to lớn 3 times longer phàn nàn candidates hired through job boards and other sources.[3] The one-to-one direct relationship between the candidate and the referring employee and the exchange of knowledge that takes place allows the candidate to lớn develop a strong understanding of the company, its business and the application and recruitment process. The candidate is thereby enabled to lớn assess their own suitability and likelihood of success, including "fitting in."
  • Reduces the considerable cost of third-party service providers who would have previously conducted the screening and selection process. An op-ed in Crain's in April 2013 recommended that companies look to lớn employee referral to lớn tốc độ the recruitment process for purple squirrels, which are rare candidates considered to lớn be "perfect" fits for open positions.[4]
  • The employee typically receives a referral bonus, and is widely acknowledged as being cost-effective. The Global Employee Referral Index 2013 Survey found that 92% of participants reported employee referrals as one of the top recruiting sources.[5]
  • As candidate quality improves and interview-to-job-offer conversion rates increase, the amount of time spent interviewing decreases, which means the company's employee headcount can be streamlined and be used more efficiently. Marketing and advertising expenditures decrease as existing employees source potential candidates from existing personal networks of friends, family, and associates. By contrast, recruiting through third-party recruitment agencies incurs a 20–25% agency finder's fee – which can top $25K for an employee with $100K annual salary.

There is, however, a risk of less corporate creativity: An overly homogeneous workforce is at risk for "fails to lớn produce novel ideas or innovations."[6]


Initially, responses to lớn mass-emailing of job announcements to lớn those within employees' social network slowed the screening process.[7]

Two ways in which this improved are:

  • Making available screen tools for employees to lớn use, although this interferes with the "work routines of already time-starved employees"[7]
  • "When employees put their reputation on the line for the person they are recommending"[7]

Screening and selection[edit]

Various psychological tests can assess a variety of KSAOs, including literacy. Assessments are also available to lớn measure physical ability. Recruiters and agencies may use applicant tracking systems to lớn filter candidates, along with software tools for psychometric testing and performance-based assessment.[8] In many countries, employers are legally mandated to lớn ensure their screening and selection processes meet equal opportunity and ethical standards.[2]

Employers are likely to lớn recognize the value of candidates who encompass soft skills, such as interpersonal or team leadership,[9] and the level of drive needed to lớn stay engaged[10]—but most employers are still using degree requirements to lớn screen out the 70+ million workers Skilled Through Alternative Routes (STARs) who already possess many of those skills.[11] In fact, many companies, including multinational organizations and those that recruit from a range of nationalities, are also often concerned about whether candidate fits the prevailing company culture and organization as a whole.[12][13] Companies and recruitment agencies are now turning to lớn đoạn phim screening as a way to lớn notice these skills without the need to lớn invite the candidates in person.[14]

The selection process is often claimed to lớn be an invention of Thomas Edison.[15]

Candidates with disabilities[edit]

The word disability carries few positive connotations for most employers. Research has shown that the employer biases tend to lớn improve through first-hand experience and exposure with proper supports for the employee[16] and the employer making the hiring decisions. As for most companies, money and job stability are two of the contributing factors to lớn the productivity of a disabled employee, which in return equates to lớn the growth and success of a business. Hiring disabled workers produces more advantages phàn nàn disadvantages.[17] There is no difference in the daily production of a disabled worker.[18] Given their situation, they are more likely to lớn adapt to lớn their environmental surroundings and acquaint themselves with equipment, enabling them to lớn solve problems and overcome adversity phàn nàn other employees.[citation needed] The United States Internal Revenue Service (IRS) grants companies Disabled Access Credit when they meet eligibility criteria.[19]


Many major corporations recognize the need for diversity in hiring to lớn compete successfully in a global economy.[20] The challenge is to lớn avoid recruiting staff who are "in the likeness of existing employees"[21] but also to lớn retain a more diverse workforce and work with inclusion strategies to lớn include them in the organisation.

Safer recruitment[edit]

"Safer recruitment" refers to lớn procedures intended to lớn promote and exercise "a safe culture including the supervision and oversight of those who work with children and vulnerable adults".[22] The NSPCC describes safer recruitment as

a phối of practices to lớn help make sure your staff and volunteers are suitable to lớn work with children and young people. It's a vital part of creating a safe and positive environment and making a commitment to lớn keep children safe from harm.[23]

In England and Wales, statutory guidance issued by the Department for Education directs how safer recruitment must be undertaken within an educational context.[24]

Recruitment process outsourcing[edit]

Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO) is a sườn of business process outsourcing (BPO) where a company engages a third-party provider to lớn manage all or part of its recruitment process.[25]


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Internal recruitment or internal mobility[26] (not to lớn be confused with internal recruiters) refers to lớn the process of a candidate being selected from the existing workforce to lớn take up a new job in the same organization, perhaps as a promotion, or to lớn provide career development opportunity, or to lớn meet a specific or urgent organizational need. Advantages include the organization's familiarity with the employee and their competencies insofar as they are revealed in their current job, and their willingness to lớn trust said employee. It can be quicker and have a lower cost to lớn hire someone internally.[27]

Many companies will choose to lớn recruit or promote employees internally. This means that instead of searching for candidates in the general labor market, the company will look at hiring one of their own employees for the position. After searches that combine internal with external processes, companies often choose to lớn hire an internal candidate over an external candidate due to lớn the costs of acquiring new employees, and also on the fact that companies have pre-existing knowledge of their own employees’ effectiveness in the workplace.[28] Additionally, internal recruitment can encourage the development of skills and knowledge because employees anticipate longer careers at the company.[28] However, promoting an employee can leave a gap at the promoted employee’s previous position that subsequently needs to lớn be filled.[29] Traditionally, internal recruitment will be done through internal job postings.[30] Another method of recruiting internally is through employee referrals. Having existing employees in good standing recommend coworkers for a job position is often a preferred method of recruitment because these employees know the values of the organization, as well as the work ethic of their coworkers.[29] Some managers will provide incentives to lớn employees who provide successful referrals.[29]

Searching for candidates externally is another option when it comes to lớn recruitment. In this case, employers or hiring committees will tìm kiếm outside of their own company for potential job candidates. The advantages of hiring externally is that it often brings fresh ideas and perspectives to lớn the company.[28] As well, external recruitment opens up more possibilities for the applicant pool phàn nàn internal recruitment does.[28] The conditions of the economy and labor market will impact the ability for a company to lớn find and attract viable candidates.[29] In order to lớn make job openings known to lớn potential candidates, companies will usually advertise their job in a number of ways. This can include advertising in local newspapers, journals, and online.[29] Research has argued that social truyền thông networks offer job seekers and recruiters the opportunity to lớn connect with other professionals cheaply. In addition, professional networking websites such as LinkedIn offer the ability to lớn go through job seekers’ biographical resumes and message them directly even if they are not actively looking for a job.[31] Attending job fairs, especially at secondary and post-secondary schools, is another method of recruiting external candidates.[30]

An employee referral program is a system where existing employees recommend prospective candidates for the job offered, and usually, if the suggested candidate is hired, the employee receives a cash bonus.[32]

Niche firms tend to lớn focus on building ongoing relationships with their candidates, as the same candidates may be placed many times throughout their careers. Online resources have developed to lớn help find niche recruiters.[33] Niche firms also develop knowledge on specific employment trends within their industry of focus (e.g., the energy industry) and are able to lớn identify demographic shifts such as aging and its impact on the industry.[34]

Social recruiting is the use of social truyền thông for recruiting. As more and more people are using the mạng internet, social networking sites, or SNS, have become an increasingly popular tool used by companies to lớn recruit and attract applicants. A study conducted by researchers found that 73.5% of Cypriot companies had an trương mục on an SNS, the most common being Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter.[35] There are many benefits associated with using SNS in recruitment, such as reducing the time required to lớn hire someone, reduced costs, attracting more “computer literate, educated young individuals”, and positively impacting the company’s brand image.[35] However, some disadvantages include increased costs for training HR specialists and installing related software for social recruiting.[35] There are also legal issues associated with this practice, such as the privacy of applicants, discrimination based on information from SNS, and inaccurate or outdated information on applicant SNS.[35]

Mobile recruiting is a recruitment strategy that uses mobile technology to lớn attract, engage, and convert candidates.

Some recruiters work by accepting payments from job seekers, and in return help them to lớn find a job. This is illegal in some countries, such as in the United Kingdom, in which recruiters must not charge candidates for their services (although websites such as LinkedIn may charge for ancillary job-search-related services). Such recruiters often refer to lớn themselves as "personal marketers" and "job application services" rather phàn nàn as recruiters.

Using multiple-criteria decision analysis[36] tools such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and combining it with conventional recruitment methods provides an added advantage by helping the recruiters to lớn make decisions when there are several diverse criteria to lớn be considered or when the applicants lack past experience; for instance, recruitment of fresh university graduates.[37]

Employers may re-recruit prior rejected candidates or recruit from retired employees as a way to lớn increase the chances for attractive qualified applicants.

Multi-tier recruitment model[edit]

In some companies where the recruitment volume is high, it is common to lớn see a multi-tier recruitment model where the different sub-functions are grouped together to lớn achieve efficiency.

An example of a three-tier recruitment model:

  • Tier 1 - Contact/help desk - This tier acts as the first point of liên hệ where recruitment requests are being raised. If the requests are simple to lớn fulfil or are queries in nature, resolution may take place at this tier.
  • Tier 2 - Administration - This tier manages mainly the administration processes
  • Tier 3 - Process - This tier manages the process and how the requests get fulfilled


Organizations define their own recruiting strategies to lớn identify who they will recruit, as well as when, where, and how that recruitment should take place.[38] Common recruiting strategies answer the following questions:[39]

  • What type of individuals should be targeted?
  • What recruitment message should be communicated?
  • How can the targeted individuals best be reached?
  • When should the recruitment chiến dịch begin?
  • What should be the nature of a site visit?


Organizations develop recruitment objectives, and the recruitment strategy follows these objectives. Typically, organizations develop pre- and post-hire objectives and incorporate these objectives into a holistic recruitment strategy.[39] Once an organization deploys a recruitment strategy it conducts recruitment activities. This typically starts by advertising a vacant position.[40]

Professional associations[edit]

There are numerous professional associations for human resources professionals. Such associations typically offer benefits such as thành viên directories, publications, discussion groups, awards, local chapters, vendor relations, government lobbying, and job boards.[41]

Professional associations also offer a recruitment resource for human resources professionals.[42]

Corrupt practices in recruitment[edit]

In the United States, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has established guidelines for prohibited employment policies/practices. These regulations serve to lớn discourage discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, etc.[43] However, recruitment ethics is an area of business that is prone to lớn many other unethical and corrupt practices.[44] According to lớn Independent Broad-based Anti-corruption Commission (IBAC), business ethics are a vital component to lớn recruitment; hiring unqualified friends or family, allowing problematic employees to lớn be recycled through a company, and failing to lớn properly validate the background of candidates can be detrimental to lớn a business.[45]

When hiring for positions that involve ethical and safety concerns it is often the individual employees who make decisions which can lead to lớn devastating consequences to lớn the whole company. Likewise, executive positions are often tasked with making difficult decisions when company emergencies occur such as public relation nightmares, natural disasters, pandemics, or a slowing economy. Businesses that have made headlines for undesirable cultures may also have a difficult time recruiting new hires.[46] Companies should aim to lớn minimize corruption using tools such as the recruitment processes, pre-employment screening, personality tests, induction, training, and establishing a code of conduct.[44]

In Germany, universities, though public employers, are generally not required to lớn advertise most vacancies especially of academic positions (teaching and/or research) other phàn nàn tenured full professors (verbeamtete Hochschullehrer).[47] At the same time, anti-discrimination measures and equal opportunities (although required within the framework of the European Union) only apply to lớn advertised jobs and to lớn the wording of the job advert.[48]

See also[edit]

Recruiting companies[edit]

  • List of employment agencies
  • List of employment websites
  • List of executive tìm kiếm firms
  • List of temporary employment agencies


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  2. ^ a b c [1], Acas. Accessed 7 March 2017
  3. ^ Pinsker, Joe (March 16, 2015). "People Who Use Firefox or Chrome Are Better Employees". The Atlantic.
  4. ^ Kramer, Mary (April 7, 2013). "Need to lớn fill jobs? Don't hunt the 'purple squirrel'". Crain's Detroit Business. Retrieved 2016-06-10.
  5. ^ ZALP Global Employee Referral Index 2013 Survey. "ZALP unleashes the power of Employee Referrals".
  6. ^ Sarah Kathryn Stein; Amir Goldberg; Sameer B. Srivastava. "Distinguishing Round from Square Pegs: Predicting Hiring Based on Pre-hire Language Use" (PDF).
  7. ^ a b c Zielinski, Dave (March 1, 2013). "HR Technology: Referral Booster". Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM).
  8. ^ Teacher's Guide to lớn Performance-Based Learning and Assessment. "What is Performance-Based Learning and Assessment, and Why is it Important", Chapter 1, ISBN 0871202611
  9. ^ Sulich, Adam. "SULICH Adam; Mathematical models and non-mathematical methods in recruitment and selection processes". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  10. ^ Siegling, Alex B.; Ng-Knight, Terry; Petrides, Konstantinos V. (2019). "Drive: Measurement of a sleeping giant" (PDF). Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research. 71 (1): 16–31. doi:10.1037/cpb0000123. ISSN 1939-0149. S2CID 149751746.
  11. ^ Auguste, Byron (2021-07-20). "The majority of Americans lack a college degree. Why vì thế so sánh many employers require one?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2021-09-24.
  12. ^ Hays Quarterly Report Sharing our recruiting know-how, Nick Deligiannis, April - June 2012
  13. ^ Barrick, Murray R.; Parks-Leduc, Laura (2019-01-21). "Selection for Fit". Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior. 6 (1): 171–193. doi:10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012218-015028. ISSN 2327-0608. S2CID 150098209.
  14. ^ "How companies and not-for-profit organisations can benefit from đoạn phim interviewing - TeloInterview". Retrieved 2018-01-12.
  15. ^ "Lost lessons from the history of the job interview". Recruiting Resources: How to lớn Recruit and Hire Better. 2016-01-27. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
  16. ^ Darling, Peter (Aug 2007). "Disabilities and the Workplace". Business NH Magazine. 24 (8): 28.
  17. ^ N/A. "Discussion: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Statistics". Valdosta State University. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  18. ^ "General discussion topics in recruitment". 4 August 2017.
  19. ^ N/A. "Tax Benefits for Businesses Who Have Employees with Disabilities". IRS. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  20. ^ Forbes
  21. ^ For example, when employee referral programs are the major source of candidates.
  22. ^ Methodist Church of Great Britain, Safer Recruitment Policy and Practice Guidance, published July 2021, accessed 17 July 2022
  23. ^ NSPCC Learning, Safer recruitment, last updated 22 April 2022, accessed 17 July 2022
  24. ^ Department for Education, Keeping children safe in education 2021: Statutory guidance for schools and colleges, September 2021, accessed 17 July 2022
  25. ^ Finn, Lynne Marie. "Council Post: How Recruitment Process Outsourcing Can Help Businesses Address The Great Rehire Of 2021". Forbes. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  26. ^ "Unlocking hidden talent through internal mobility". (Deloitte Insights). July 30, 2018.
  27. ^ Schawbel, Dan (15 August 2012). "The Power Within: Why Internal Recruiting & Hiring Are on the Rise". Time. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  28. ^ a b c d California State University East Bay, USA; DeVaro, Jed (2020). "Internal hiring or external recruitment?". IZA World of Labor. doi:10.15185/izawol.237.v2.
  29. ^ a b c d e Gusdorf, M. L. (2008). Recruitment and selection: Hiring the right person. USA: Society for Human Resource Management.
  30. ^ a b Acikgoz, Yalcin (2019-03-01). "Employee recruitment and job search: Towards a multi-level integration". Human Resource Management Review. 29 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2018.02.009. ISSN 1053-4822. S2CID 149258644.
  31. ^ Nikolaou, Ioannis (2014-04-23). "Social Networking Web Sites in Job Search and Employee Recruitment". International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 22 (2): 179–189. doi:10.1111/ijsa.12067. ISSN 0965-075X. S2CID 145550194.
  32. ^ "What is an employee referral program?". 15 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  33. ^ "How to lớn Find Recruiters in Your Niche". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
  34. ^ "The New Energy Crisis: Power Industry in for a Jolt as About Half of Workforce Readies for Retirement".
  35. ^ a b c d Melanthiou, Yioula; Pavlou, Fotis; Constantinou, Eleni (2015-01-02). "The Use of Social Network Sites as an E-Recruitment Tool". Journal of Transnational Management. 20 (1): 31–49. doi:10.1080/15475778.2015.998141. ISSN 1547-5778. S2CID 154546627.
  36. ^ Malara Z., Miśko R. and Sulich A. “Wroclaw University of Technology graduates' career paths”, Vesnik of Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno. Series 5. Economics. Sociology. Biology , vol. 6 no. 3, pp. 6-12, năm 2016.
  37. ^ Zarei, Mohammad Hossein; Wong, Kuan Yew (2014). "Making the recruitment decision for fresh university graduates: A study of employment in an industrial organisation". International Journal of Management and Decision Making. 13 (4): 380. doi:10.1504/IJMDM.2014.065357. S2CID 154257942.
  38. ^ "Recruitment strategy: A điện thoại tư vấn to lớn action". Retrieved 2019-01-02.
  39. ^ a b James A. Breaugh (2013-10-15). Cable, Daniel M; Yu, Kang Yang Trevor (eds.). "Establishing Recruitment Objectives and Developing a Recruitment Strategy for Attaining Them". The Oxford Handbook of Recruitment. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199756094.013.0020.
  40. ^ Breaugh, James (2016). Talent Acquisition: A Guide to lớn Understanding and Managing the Recruiting Process. SHRM Foundation.
  41. ^ Degraff, Jonathan E. (21 February 2010). "The Changing Environment of Professional HR Associations". Cornell HR Review. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012.
  42. ^ "4.3 Recruitment Strategies – Human Resource Management". 22 March 2016. Retrieved 2019-01-02.
  43. ^ "Prohibited Practices". Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  44. ^ a b "Recruitment a key corruption risk in public sector". IBAC. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  45. ^ "Corruption risks in recruitment and employment". IBAC. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  46. ^ Rodriguez, Salvador (2019-05-16). "Facebook has struggled to lớn hire talent since the Cambridge Analytica scandal, according to lớn recruiters who worked there". CNBC. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  47. ^ "Hochschulgesetze der Länder". Retrieved 2021-09-24.. For example, the internal regulation of the University of Trier isVon einer Ausschreibungspflicht lặng wissenschaftlichen Bereich und bei Drittmittel finanzierten [sic] Forschungsprojekten wird lặng Allgemeinen abgesehen... ("There is generally no requirement to lớn advertise academic positions, including externally-funded research projects" "Dienstvereinbarung "Grundsätze über die Durchführung von Stellenbesetzungsverfahren" (Stand 1/2016)" (PDF). Universität Trier. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-08-05. Retrieved 2021-09-24..
  48. ^ "Auswirkungen des Gleichbehandlungsgesetzes". IHK Wiesbaden. Retrieved 2021-09-24..

External links[edit]

Look up Recruitment in Wiktionary, the không tính tiền dictionary.

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  • Media related to lớn Recruitment at Wikimedia Commons