pop up là gì

From Wikipedia, the miễn phí encyclopedia

Pop-up ads or pop-ups are forms of online advertising on the World Wide Web. A pop-up is a graphical user interface (GUI) display area, usually a small window, that suddenly appears ("pops up") in the foreground of the visual interface. The pop-up window containing an advertisement is usually generated by JavaScript[1] that uses cross-site scripting (XSS), sometimes with a secondary payload that uses Adobe Flash.[2] They can also be generated by other vulnerabilities/security holes in browser security.

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A variation on the pop-up window, the pop-under advertisement, opens a new browser window under the active window. Pop-unders tự not interrupt the user immediately but appear when the user closes the covering window, making it more challenging vĩ đại determine which trang web created them.


Pop-up ads originated on the Tripod.com webpage hosting site in the late 1990s. JavaScript provided the capability for a trang web page vĩ đại open another window. Ethan Zuckerman claims he used that capability vĩ đại launch advertisements in separate windows as a response vĩ đại complaints from advertisers about their ads appearing on pages with sexual nội dung.[3] Zuckerman later apologized for the unforeseen nuisance pop-up ads had evolved into.[4]

Pop-up blocking[edit]

Web development and design technologies allow an author vĩ đại associate any item on a pop-up with any action, including with a cancel or innocent-looking button. Because of bad experiences and apprehensive of possible damage that they may cause, some users tự not click on or interact with any item inside a pop-up window whatsoever,[5] and may leave the site that generated them or block all pop-ups.

Opera was the first major browser vĩ đại incorporate tools vĩ đại block pop-up ads; the Mozilla browser later improved on this by blocking only pop-ups generated as the page loads.[citation needed] In the early 2000s, all major trang web browsers except Internet Explorer let users block unwanted pop-ups almost completely. In 2004, Microsoft released Windows XP SP2, which added pop-up blocking vĩ đại Internet Explorer.[6] Most modern browsers provide pop-up blocking tools; third-party tools add other features, such as ad filtering.

Fake close buttons[edit]

Users of websites and trang web applications continuously experience unwanted pop-up ads throughout the course of their normal interaction with a trang web browser.[7] Ordinarily, users respond by dismissing the pop-up through the "close" or "cancel" feature of the window hosting the pop-up. Because this is a typical response, some authors of pop-up advertising depend on this and create on-screen buttons or controls that look similar vĩ đại a "close" or "cancel" option. When the user chooses one of these "simulated cancel" options, the button performs an unexpected or unauthorized action (such as opening a new pop-up or downloading an unwanted tệp tin on the user's system).[5]

Circumventing pop-up blockers[edit]

A hover ad or in-page pop-up uses JavaScript vĩ đại combine a banner ad and a pop-up window that appears in front of the browser screen. JavaScript imposes an advertisement over a webpage in a transparent layer. This advertisement can appear in a variety of forms. For example, an advertisement can contain an Adobe Flash animation that links vĩ đại the advertiser's site. An advertisement can also look lượt thích a normal window. Pop-up blockers cannot block the ad because it is a part of the webpage, but it can be blocked with third-party ad blockers such as AdBlock and Adblock Plus, or by using custom style sheets.

URL redirection[edit]

URLs are sometimes redirected vĩ đại advertisement pages by URL redirection.

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URLs are sometimes opened in a new tab and then the nội dung of the old background tab will be replaced with an advertisement page by URL redirection, other times it switches the tab the user is on vĩ đại the advertisement tab. Adblock Plus,[8] uBlock Origin[9] and NoScript[citation needed] cannot block these redirects.



  • Certain types of downloaded nội dung, such as images, miễn phí music, and others, can cause pop-ups, and therefore should not be trusted, especially pornographic sites' pop-ups (known as a "pornado" or "porn-storm", as coined by John C. Dvorak.)[10] Also, the pop-ups sometimes look lượt thích ordinary trang web pages, and the name of the site shows up in a tìm kiếm bar.
  • Many websites use pop-ups vĩ đại display information without disrupting the page currently open. For example, they may provide needed extra guidance when filling in a sườn on a trang web page, without causing the loss of any information already entered into the sườn. Most pop-up blockers allow this kind of pop-up. Some, however, reload the page, losing any information the user entered.
  • Some online shops use exit intent popups, for example offering discounts, in an attempt vĩ đại retain users.[11]
  • Some trang web based installers, such as that used by McAfee, use a pop-up vĩ đại install software.
  • On many mạng internet browsers, holding down the ctrl key while clicking a links makes it bypass the popup filter.[12]
  • Clicking (even accidentally) on one pop-up may open other pop-up ads.

Pop-under ads[edit]

Pop-under ads are similar vĩ đại pop-up ads, but the ad window appears hidden behind the main browser window rather phàn nàn superimposed in front of it. As pop-up ads became more widespread and intrusive, often taking up the whole computer screen, many users would immediately close the pop-up ads that appeared over a site without looking at them. Pop-under ads tự not immediately impede the view of nội dung, but remain unnoticed until the user closes or minimizes the main browser window.

Pop-under ad technology[edit]

A pop-under ad involves two JavaScript functions introduced in 1995 with the Netscape 2.0b3 browser. Modern trang web publishers and advertisers use it vĩ đại create a window in front of the user's screen, load an advertisement, and then send it behind the screen.

// create a new window in front of the current site
window.open(URL, windowName[, windowFeatures]); 
// push the loaded advertisement back behind the browser

Most modern browsers allow window.open vĩ đại execute only if it was called by a user interaction (e.g., a mouse click) sự kiện handler. Any non-interactive calls (timer callback, load events, etc.) vĩ đại window.open result in the new window being blocked.

To bypass this restriction, most pop-under ads trigger on a mouse click sự kiện listener attached directly vĩ đại the document or the document's body toàn thân. This enables catching all mouse click events that were not consumed by other click sự kiện handlers, and calling window.open without being blocked. For example, when the user selects a text, the mouse click triggers the mouse click handler attached vĩ đại the document and a pop-under opens using the above code. Other techniques vĩ đại bypass the window.open đường dây nóng restriction tự ví by "hijacking" mouse clicks.

Hover ad[edit]

Hover ads, more commonly called in-page pop-ups, are a special type of pop-up ads created using Dynamic HTML, JavaScript and similar trang web browser technologies. Because they tự not scroll with the trang web page, they appear vĩ đại "hover" over the page, usually obscuring the nội dung. Hover ads tend vĩ đại be very hard vĩ đại block by pop-up blocking software because the hover ad window is an integral part of the HTML nội dung of the trang web page. Thus software filtering the nội dung has no algorithmic means of recognizing and removing parts of the nội dung, either descriptive or procedural, that create, populate and manipulate the hover ad's window.

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Pop-up effectiveness[edit]

Most pop-up advertising tools include built-in measurement possibilities. These are often dashboards that offer a detailed analysis of your current and previous pop-up ads. Typically, measurable items include:

  • Conversion rate or how pop-ups impact the quantity of targeted trang web activity.
  • Number of trang web visitors. Pop-ups that are inappropriate could hurt the visitors vĩ đại your trang web. Counting visitors will enable you vĩ đại keep track of the promotions, pages, and nội dung that consumers enjoy the most, as well as the devices they use vĩ đại access your trang web.
  • Drop-off rate. This measure sida in locating any particular pop-up fields that cause trang web visitors vĩ đại leave before they can read your nội dung.
  • Timing. Understanding if you are delivering the pop-ups in the right time affects the number of visitors and impressions you are getting from them and adjusting display rules accordingly. [13]

Patent controversy[edit]

ExitExchange.com filed for a patent in 2000 on a subset of pop-under advertising called an exit pop. After years of controversy and numerous articles on the pop-under patent, the patent was awarded by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in April and June 2008.[14] The respective patent numbers are U.S. Patent 7,386,555 ('555) and U.S. Patent 7,353,229 ('229). '555 is related vĩ đại the method of opening an exit pop from a toolbar or software application on a computing device, whereas '229 covers the method used vĩ đại open an exit pop from an embedded script found within a truyền thông tệp tin (e.g., JavaScript code on a trang web page).

Copyright issues[edit]

Copyright aspects of pop-up advertising are discussed in the Wikipedia articles on derivative works and transformativeness. Both articles contain illustrations and links vĩ đại examples of pop-up advertising.

See also[edit]

  • 1-800 Contacts, Inc. v. WhenU.com, Inc., lawsuit between 1-800 Contacts and WhenU SaveNow over pop-up ad placement
  • Ad serving
  • Adware and Spyware
  • Dark pattern
  • Direct marketing
  • In-session phishing
  • Interstitial webpage
  • List of pop-up blocking software
  • Malvertising
  • Malware
  • Messaging spam
  • Modal window
  • Ransomware
  • Technical Support Scam


  • Adams, Cecil. "What's up with popup ads?". The Straight Dope. October 15, 2004.
  • Zabunov, S. "From Annoyance vĩ đại Pleasure - The Artistic Popup Approach". May 12, 2006.
  • US Patent 7,386,555 "Post-session mạng internet advertising system"
  • US Patent 7,353,229 "Post-session mạng internet advertising system"


  1. ^ "How To Create Popups". www.w3schools.com. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  2. ^ "NoScript :: Add-ons for Firefox". Mozilla Add-ons. Mozilla.
  3. ^ Zuckerman, Ethan (August 14, 2014). "The Internet's Original Sin: It's not too late vĩ đại ditch the ad-based business model and build a better web". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  4. ^ O'Toole, James. "Pop-up ad creator: 'I'm sorry'". money.cnn.com. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Pop-ups". Smart Computing. September 2004. Archived from the original on 2010-05-22.
  6. ^ Naraine, Ryan (March 18, 2004). "Windows XP SP2 Turns 'On' Pop-up Blocking". Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  7. ^ Wegert, Tessa (14 March 2002). "Pop-Up Ads, Part 1: Good? Bad? Ugly?". Incisive Interactive Marketing LLC. Retrieved March 14, 2002.
  8. ^ "#2095 (Prevent background redirects)". Adblock Plus Issue Tracker.
  9. ^ Mishra, Sandhya; Soni, Devpriya (2020-07-01). "Smishing Detector: A security model vĩ đại detect smishing through SMS nội dung analysis and URL behavior analysis". Future Generation Computer Systems. 108: 803–815. doi:10.1016/j.future.2020.03.021. ISSN 0167-739X. S2CID 215863110.
  10. ^ "Ubiquitous Porn: Alive on the Net". PCMAG. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  11. ^ "19 Exit Intent Popup Examples vĩ đại Increase Conversions in 2022".
  12. ^ "How vĩ đại disable popup-blockers". Archived from the original on 2013-08-08. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  13. ^ "What Are Pop-Ups: A Definitive Guide With Examples & Best Practices".
  14. ^ "Patents".

External links[edit]