Peas are small, round seeds that are inside the pods produced by the Pisum sativum plant. Pea belongs vĩ đại the Leguminaceae group and is cultivated in the cool season. Pea is cultivated all around the world and in India, it can be found in the state of Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Orissa and many more. The green ones are used as vegetables and the dry ones are used as pulses. Peas are a source of vitamins and minerals namely magnesium, thiamine, phosphorus etc. Green peas straw is good source of nutritional fodder for livestock.
For pea cultivation, temperature should range between 15 degree vĩ đại 30 degree Celsius. Optimum rainfall range is between 400 vĩ đại 500 milimet. While harvesting, the temperature should range between 15 vĩ đại trăng tròn degree Celsius and sowing temperature should range between 25 vĩ đại 30 degree Celsius.
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Cultivation can be done on several soil types. Well drained loam soil with a pH level of 6 vĩ đại 7.5 is optimum for farming of peas. Peas cultivation cannot thrive in water logged areas. Liming is vĩ đại be done for acidic soil type.
Some of the major varieties include Early Bejar, Asauji, Jawahar Matar, Mithi Fali and Arket.
Once kharif crop harvest is done, a couple of ploughing along with harrowing is required. Once the ploughing and harrowing process is over, the hard clods are vĩ đại be softened and proper leveling vĩ đại be done in the field vĩ đại avoid water logging problems. Before sowing of seeds, light showers of water is to be done for better germination.
Seed rate and treatment:
A total of 35 vĩ đại 40 kilogam of seed is vĩ đại be used for 1 acre of land.
1 kilo of seeds are vĩ đại be treated with 3 grams of Captan or Thiram or 2.5 gram of Carbendazim. Once the chemical treatment is over, again treat the seeds with Rhizobium leguminosorum culture emulsified in ten percent of sugar solution. Thorough mixing has vĩ đại be done with the seeds and should be kept in shade vĩ đại dry. By doing so sánh you can increase the total yield vĩ đại more than thở 10 percent.
Sowing has vĩ đại be completed between the kết thúc of October and mid of November for plains and between mid of March till kết thúc of May for hills. Broadcasting method can be used for sowing seeds. Spacing wise 30 X 5 centimet is maintained for early varieties and 50 X 10 centimet for late varieties. Seeds are vĩ đại be sown at a depth of 3 centimet under the soil.
Urea and SSP requirement per acre of land is 45 kilos and 155 kilos. And potash requirements will be on soil results.
Nitrogen and Phosphorus requirement per acre of land is trăng tròn kilos and 25 kilos.
While sowing, apply 20kg Nitrogen in sườn of 50kg Urea and 25kg Phosphorus in sườn of 150kg Superphosphate per acre. Provide dosage of fertilizer alongside the rows.
Control of weed:
Weeding depends on the variety of pea; either one or two weeding is required. 1st Weeding has vĩ đại be done, 3 or 4 weeks into the cultivation and 2nd weeding has vĩ đại be done before flowering. Use 1 liter of Pendimethalin and Besalin for each acre of land. Herbicides can be used within 48 hours of seeds sowing and is considered as a great way of controlling of weed in pea farming.
Irrigation is required before sowing of seeds for better germination. There is no need for pre sowing irrigation in case soil has enough moisture in it. Once sowing is over, it requires a couple of more times of irrigation. 1st spray is applied before flowering and 2nd is spayed at the pod formation time. Do not water heavily as it can lead vĩ đại reduction in total yield.
Pest and disease control:
For Pea leaf Miner, apply 300 ml Dimethoate 30EC into 100 liter of water and spray per acre of land. Spray in an interval of 15 days if necessary.
For Pea Thrips and Aphid, apply 400 ml of Dimethoate 30EC into 100 liter of water and spray per acre of land. Spray in an interval of 15 days if necessary.
For Pod borer, apply 900 gram of Carbaryl into 100 liter of water and spray per acre of land. Spray in an interval of 15 days if necessary.
For Powdery mildew disease, apply 2 gram of Wettable sulphur per liter of water or 1 ml of Dinocap per liter of water or 0.5 ml Tridemorph per liter of water and spray three rounds at a 15 days interval.
Harvest and yield:
Harvesting has vĩ đại be done just before maturity i.e. when the colour changes from Black vĩ đại green. Depending on the variety, harvesting for early variety has vĩ đại be done between 45 vĩ đại 60 days, mid season and late season crop has vĩ đại be done between 75 days and within 100 days.
Yield for early season variety ranges between 35 vĩ đại 45 quintals per hectare and for mid and late season is between 50 vĩ đại 65 quintals per hectare.
Storage temperature should be cold vĩ đại avoid spoilage. Packing can be done in boxes, plastic and wooden baskets etc.
In current times, a small farmer can earn approximately Rs.1,00,000 per 2.5 acre of land by selling pea both as a vegetable and as seeds. The harvesting is done twice or thrice in a row and also seed production is done by the farmer. Farmer spends approx Rs.5,000 on seed, Rs.10,000 on transportation, Rs.1,000 on irrigation, Rs.2,000 on land preparation and Rs.5,000 for fertilizer. The farmer has vĩ đại spend an approx value of about Rs.23,000 and can earn upto one lakh rupees in less than thở four vĩ đại five months.
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First published on: 10 Sep 2020, 15:18 IST
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