payment là gì

From Wikipedia, the miễn phí encyclopedia

A payment is the voluntary tender of money or its equivalent or of things of value by one buổi tiệc ngọt (such as a person or company) đồ sộ another in exchange for goods or services provided by them, or đồ sộ fulfill a legal obligation/philanthropy desire. The buổi tiệc ngọt making the payment is commonly called the payer, while the payee is the buổi tiệc ngọt receiving the payment.

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Payments can be effected in a number of ways, for example:

  • the use of money, cheque, or debit, credit, or ngân hàng transfers, whether through mobile payment or otherwise
  • the transfer of anything of value, such as stock, or using barter, or personal data, the exchange of one good or service for another.

In general, payees are at liberty đồ sộ determine what method of payment they will accept; though normally laws require the payer đồ sộ accept the country's legal tender up đồ sộ a prescribed limit. Payment is most commonly effected in the local currency of the payee unless the parties agree otherwise. Payment in another currency involves an additional foreign exchange transaction. The payee may compromise on a debt, i.e., accept part payment in full settlement of a debtor's obligation, or may offer a discount, E.G: For payment in cash, or for prompt payment, etc. On the other hand, the payee may impose a surcharge, for example, as a late payment fee, or for use of a certain credit thẻ, etc.

Payments are frequently preceded by an invoice or bill, which follows the supply of goods or services, but in some industries (such as travel and hotels) it is not uncommon for pre-payments đồ sộ be required before the service is performed or provided. In some industries, a deposit may be required before services are performed, which acts as a part pre-payment or as security đồ sộ the service provider. In some cases, progress payments are made in advance, and in some cases part payments are accepted, which tự not extinguish the payer's legal obligations. The acceptance of a payment by the payee extinguishes a debt or other obligation. A creditor cannot unreasonably refuse đồ sộ accept a payment, but payment can be refused in some circumstances, for example, on a Sunday or outside banking hours. A payee is usually obligated đồ sộ acknowledge payment by producing a receipt đồ sộ the payer. A receipt may be an endorsement on an tài khoản as "paid in full". The giving of a guarantee or other security for a debt does not constitute a payment.


The root word "pay" in "payment" comes from the Latin "pacare" (to pacify), from "pax", meaning "peace". In the Middle Ages, the term began đồ sộ be used more broadly, đồ sộ mean "to pacify one's creditors". As the Latin word was made part of Old French "paier", it retained the meaning "appease" but gained the meaning "to pay" (as in paying a debt). The Middle English word "payen", which came from French, was also used in both ways.[1]


There are two types of payment methods; exchanging and provisioning. Exchanging involves the use of money, comprising banknotes and coins. Provisioning involves the transfer of money from one tài khoản đồ sộ another, and involves a third buổi tiệc ngọt. Credit thẻ, debit thẻ, cheque, money transfers, and recurring cash or ACH (Automated Clearing House) disbursements are all electronic payments methods. Electronic payment technologies include magnetic stripe cards, smartcards, contactless cards, and mobile payment .

Parties involved[edit]

A payment may involve more phàn nàn two parties. For example, a pre-paid thẻ transaction usually involves four parties: the purchaser, the seller, the issuing ngân hàng and the acquiring ngân hàng. A cash payment requires at least three parties: the seller, the purchaser and the issuer of the currency. A barter payment requires a minimum of two parties: the purchaser and the seller.


The infrastructure and electronic clearing methods are formed by the payment provider. Global credit thẻ payment providers are Diners Club, Visa, American Express and MasterCard. Maestro and Cirrus are international debit thẻ payment providers.

Blockchain also provides an infrastructure for payments using digital currency and potentially better security, fewer intermediaries, and lower transaction costs.[2]

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Global market[edit]

In 2005, an estimated $40 trillion globally passed through some type of payment system. Roughly $12 trillion of that was transacted through various credit cards, mostly the 21,000 thành viên banks of Visa and MasterCard. Processing payments, including the extending of credit, produced close đồ sộ $500 billion in revenue.[3] In 2012, roughly $377 trillion passed through noncash payment systems. This led đồ sộ total tài khoản and transaction revenues of nearly $524 billion.[4]

Debit cards[edit]

In the U.S., debit cards are the fastest growing payment technology. In 2001, debit cards accounted for 9 percent of all purchase transactions, and this is expected đồ sộ double đồ sộ 18.82 per cent in 2011.[5]

Mobile payments[edit]

There is a fast growth of mobile payments around the world. Google Pay, Apple Pay and Samsung Pay are the three main choices for mobile payments, while some banks also allow NFC Payments. In some countries, mobile wallets have become a dominant way of mobile payments.


Historically, cheques have been one of the primary means of payment for purchasing goods and services, though its share in the payment mix is falling worldwide. In 2001, in the United States, cheques accounted for 25% of the U.S.-based payment mix; and in 2006, this was projected đồ sộ fall đồ sộ 17%.[6]


The timing of payment has legal implications in some situations. For tax purposes, for example, the timing of payment may determine whether it qualifies as a deduction in a taxpayer's calculation of taxable income in one year or the next.

For U.S. tax purposes, cash payments generally are taken đồ sộ occur at the time of payment. Payment may also occur when a person transfers property or performs a service đồ sộ the payee in satisfaction of an obligation.[7] A payment by cheque is normally deemed đồ sộ occur when the cheque is delivered, as long as the cheque is honoured on the presentation by the payee. This rule also generally applies where the cheque is not presented đồ sộ the ngân hàng until the next taxable year, even though the payer could stop payment on the cheque, in the meantime.[8] Postdated cheques, however, are not considered payment when delivered.[9] Generally, payments by credit thẻ take effect at the point of the sale and not when a payer is billed by the credit thẻ company or when the payer pays the credit thẻ company's bill.[10] A business that reports on an accrual basis, would report income in the year of sale though payment may be received in a subsequent year.

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Payment of most fees đồ sộ government agencies by cheque, if permitted, usually takes effect after a mix number of days for clearance or until the cheque is actually cleared. Payments by credit thẻ, if permitted, and cash payments take immediate effect. Normally, no other forms of payment are permitted or accepted.

See also[edit]

  • Accounting
  • APACS (the former name of the UK Payments Administration)
  • Business
  • Commerce
  • Financial transaction
  • Money
  • Money transmitter
  • Trade


  1. ^ The Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories. Merriam-Webster Inc., 1991. p. 350.
  2. ^ Staff Writers (2020-10-22). "Payment Using Blockchain Technology : Solution or Problem?". Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  3. ^ McKinsey and Company, 2006
  4. ^ Boston Consulting Group, "Global Payments 2013", September 2013
  5. ^ The Nilson Report, Issue 761, April 2002
  6. ^ The Nilson Report
  7. ^ See Donaldson, Samuel A., Federal Income Taxation of Individuals: Cases, Problems and Materials, 734 (2nd. Ed. 2007).
  8. ^ Estate of Spiegel v. Commissioner, 12 T.C. 524 (1949).
  9. ^ Griffin v. Commissioner, 49 T.C. 253 (1967).
  10. ^ Revenue Ruling 78-38, 1978-1 C.B. 67.


  • finn. Carmine Bunker, Mary S.:John Wiley and sons.
  • Schaefer, Mary S.: John Wiley & Sons (2007) Controller & CFO Guide đồ sộ Accounts Payable
  • Schaeffer, Mary S.: John Wiley & Sons (2006) Accounts Payable & Sarbanes Oxley

External links[edit]

Look up payment in Wiktionary, the miễn phí dictionary.

  • Media related đồ sộ Payments at Wikimedia Commons