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|Other names||Overdose, OD, Hotshot, Wasted, Intoxication, Gassed, Medicinal Poisoning|
|A photograph showing a person who had overdosed|
|Symptoms||Depends on the drug and the amount used|
A drug overdose (overdose or OD) is the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities much greater phàn nàn are recommended. Typically it is used for cases when a risk đồ sộ health will potentially result. An overdose may result in a toxic state or death.
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The word "overdose" implies that there is a common safe dosage and usage for the drug; therefore, the term is commonly applied only đồ sộ drugs, not poisons, even though many poisons as well are harmless at a low enough dosage. Drug overdose is sometimes used as a means đồ sộ commit suicide, as the result of intentional or unintentional misuse of medication. Intentional misuse leading đồ sộ overdose can include using prescribed or non-prescribed drugs in excessive quantities in an attempt đồ sộ produce euphoria.
Usage of illicit drugs, in large quantities, or after a period of drug abstinence can also induce overdose. Cocaine users who inject intravenously can easily overdose accidentally, as the margin between a pleasurable drug sensation and an overdose is small. Unintentional misuse can include errors in dosage caused by failure đồ sộ read or understand product labels. Accidental overdoses may also be the result of over-prescription, failure đồ sộ recognize a drug's active ingredient or unwitting ingestion by children. A common unintentional overdose in young children involves multivitamins containing iron.
The term 'overdose' is often misused as a descriptor for adverse drug reactions or negative drug interactions due đồ sộ mixing multiple drugs simultaneously.
Signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms of an overdose vary depending on the drug or exposure đồ sộ toxins. The symptoms can often be divided into differing toxidromes. This can help one determine what class of drug or toxin is causing the difficulties.
Symptoms of opioid overdoses include slow breathing, heart rate and pulse. Opioid overdoses can also cause pinpoint pupils, and xanh rớt lips and nails due đồ sộ low levels of oxygen in the blood. A person experiencing an opioid overdose might also have muscle spasms, seizures and decreased consciousness. A person experiencing an opiate overdose usually will not wake up even if their name is called or if they are shaken vigorously.
The drugs or toxins that are most frequently involved in overdose and death (grouped by ICD-10):
Masking undesired taste may impair judgement of the potency, which is a factor in overdosing. For example, lean is usually created as a drinkable mixture, the cough syrup is combined with soft drinks, especially fruit-flavored drinks such as Sprite, Mountain Dew or Fanta, and is typically served in a foam cup. A hard candy, usually a Jolly Rancher, may be added đồ sộ give the mixture a sweeter flavor.
The substance that has been taken may often be determined by asking the person. However, if they will not, or cannot, due đồ sộ an altered level of consciousness, provide this information, a tìm kiếm of the trang chủ or questioning of friends and family may be helpful.
Examination for toxidromes, drug testing, or laboratory test may be helpful. Other laboratory test such as glucose, urea and electrolytes, paracetamol levels and salicylate levels are typically done. Negative drug-drug interactions have sometimes been misdiagnosed as an acute drug overdose, occasionally leading đồ sộ the assumption of suicide.
The distribution of naloxone đồ sộ injection drug users and other opioid drug users decreases the risk of death from overdose. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that U.S. programs for drug users and their caregivers prescribing take-home doses of naloxone and training on its utilization are estimated đồ sộ have prevented 10,000 opioid overdose deaths. Healthcare institution-based naloxone prescription programs have also helped reduce rates of opioid overdose in the U.S. state of North Carolina, and have been replicated in the U.S. military. Nevertheless, scale-up of healthcare-based opioid overdose interventions is limited by providers' insufficient knowledge and negative attitudes towards prescribing take-home naloxone đồ sộ prevent opioid overdose. Programs training police and fire personnel in opioid overdose response using naloxone have also shown promise in the U.S.
Supervised injection sites (also known as overdose prevention centers) have been used đồ sộ help prevent drug overdoses by offering opioid reversal medications such as naloxone, medical assistance and treatment options. They also provide clean needles đồ sộ help prevent the spread of diseases lượt thích human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis.
Stabilization of the person's airway, breathing, and circulation (ABCs) is the initial treatment of an overdose. Ventilation is considered when there is a low respiratory rate or when blood gases show the person đồ sộ be hypoxic. Monitoring of the patient should continue before and throughout the treatment process, with particular attention đồ sộ temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure, urine output, electrocardiography (ECG) and O2 saturation. Poison control centers and medical toxicologists are available in many areas đồ sộ provide guidance in overdoses both đồ sộ physicians and đồ sộ the general public.
Specific antidotes are available for certain overdoses. For example, naloxone is the antidote for opiates such as heroin or morphine. Similarly, benzodiazepine overdoses may be effectively reversed with flumazenil. As a nonspecific antidote, activated charcoal is frequently recommended if available within one hour of the ingestion and the ingestion is significant. Gastric lavage, syrup of ipecac, and whole bowel irrigation are rarely used.
Epidemiology and statistics
UN gives figures of 300 000 deaths per year in the world through drug overdose.
1,015,060 US residents died from drug overdoses from 1968 đồ sộ 2019. 22 people out of every 100,000 died from drug overdoses in 2019 in the US. From 1999 đồ sộ Feb 2019 in the United States, more phàn nàn 770,000 people have died from drug overdoses.
In the US around 107,500 people died in the 12-month period ending August 31, 2022, at a rate of 294 deaths per day. 70,630 people died from drug overdoses in 2019. The U.S. drug overdose death rate has gone from 2.5 per 100,000 people in 1968 đồ sộ 21.5 per 100,000 in 2019.
The National Center for Health Statistics reports that 19,250 people died of accidental poisoning in the U.S. in the year 2004 (eight deaths per 100,000 population).
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In 2008 testimony before a Senate subcommittee, Leonard J. Paulozzi, a medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said that in 2005 more phàn nàn 22,000 American people died due đồ sộ overdoses, and the number is growing rapidly. Paulozzi also testified that all available evidence suggests unintentional overdose deaths are related đồ sộ the increasing use of prescription drugs, especially opioid painkillers. However, the vast majority of overdoses are also attributable đồ sộ alcohol. It is very rare for a victim of an overdose đồ sộ have consumed just one drug. Most overdoses occur when drugs are ingested in combination with alcohol.
Drug overdose was the leading cause of injury death in 2013. Among people 25 đồ sộ 64 years old, drug overdose caused more deaths phàn nàn motor vehicle traffic crashes. There were 43,982 drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2013. Of these, 22,767 (51.8%) were related đồ sộ prescription drugs.
The 22,767 deaths relating đồ sộ prescription drug overdose in 2013, 16,235 (71.3%) involved opioid painkillers, and 6,973 (30.6%) involved benzodiazepines. Drug misuse and abuse caused about 2.5 million emergency department (ED) visits in 2011. Of these, more phàn nàn 1.4 million ED visits were related đồ sộ prescription drugs. Among those ED visits, 501,207 visits were related đồ sộ anti-anxiety and insomnia medications, and 420,040 visits were related đồ sộ opioid analgesics.
U.S. yearly overdose deaths from all drugs.
U.S. yearly overdose deaths involving benzodiazepines.
U.S. yearly overdose deaths involving cocaine.
U.S. yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.
U.S. overdose deaths involving all opioids. Deaths per 100,000 population.
U.S. yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. Non-methadone synthetics is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.
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US yearly overdose deaths, and the drugs involved. Among the 70,200 deaths in 2017, the sharpest increase occurred among deaths related đồ sộ fentanyl and fentanyl analogs (synthetic opioids) with 28,466 deaths.
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- ^ a b Data is from these saved tables from CDC Wonder at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. The tables have totals, rates, and US populations per year.
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- 1979-1998 data: Compressed Mortality File 1979-1998. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File CMF 1968-1988, Series đôi mươi, No. 2A, 2000 and CMF 1989-1998, Series đôi mươi, No. 2E, 2003. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9.html on Mar 13, 2021 5:19:27 PM.
- 1999-2019 data: Multiple Cause of Death 1999-2019. CDC WONDER Online Database, released in 2020. Data are from the Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2019, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/mcd-icd10.html on Mar 13, 2021 5:05:13 PM.
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- ^ Products - Vital Statistics Rapid Release - Provisional Drug Overdose Data. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hover cursor over the kết thúc of the graph in Figure 1A đồ sộ get the latest number. Scroll down the page and click on the dropdown data table called "Data Table for Figure 1a. 12 Month-ending Provisional Counts of Drug Overdose Deaths". The number used is the "predicted value" for the 12 month period that is ending at the kết thúc of that month. That number changes as more info comes in. If there are problems use a different browser.
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