mood là gì

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"Good Mood" redirects here. For the Ball Park Music album, see Good Mood (album).

In psychology, a mood is an affective state. In contrast đồ sộ emotions or feelings, moods are less specific, less intense and less likely đồ sộ be provoked or instantiated by a particular stimulus or sự kiện. Moods are typically described as having either a positive or negative valence. In other words, people usually talk about being in a good mood or a bad mood. There are many different factors that influence mood, and these can lead đồ sộ positive or negative effects on mood.

Mood also differs from temperament or personality traits which are even longer-lasting. Nevertheless, personality traits such as optimism and neuroticism predispose certain types of moods. Long term disturbances of mood such as clinical depression and bipolar disorder are considered mood disorders. Mood is an internal, subjective state but it often can be inferred from posture and other behaviors. "We can be sent into a mood by an unexpected sự kiện, from the happiness of seeing an old friend đồ sộ the anger of discovering betrayal by a partner. We may also just fall into a mood."[1]


Etymologically, the word mood derives from the Old English mōd which denoted military courage, but could also refer đồ sộ a person's humor, temper, or disposition at a particular time. The cognate Gothic mōds translates both θυμός "mood, spiritedness" and ὀργή "anger".

The English word "mood" which means emotional condition or state of mind was originally derived from the Proto-Germanic root "moda-".[2]

Types of mood[edit]

Positive mood[edit]

Positive mood can be caused by many different aspects of life as well as have certain effects on people as a whole. Good mood is usually considered a state without an identified cause; people cannot pinpoint exactly why they are in a good mood. People seem đồ sộ experience a positive mood when they have a clean slate, have had a good night sleep, and feel no sense of stress in their life.

There have been many studies done on the effect of positive emotion on the cognitive mind and there is speculation that positive mood can affect our minds in good or bad ways. Generally, positive mood has been found đồ sộ enhance creative problem solving and flexible yet careful thinking.[3] Some studies have stated that positive moods let people think creatively, freely, and be more imaginative. Positive mood can also help individuals in situations in which heavy thinking and brainstorming is involved. In one experiment, individuals who were induced with a positive mood enhanced performance on the Remote Associates Task (RAT), a cognitive task that requires creative problem solving.[4] Moreover, the study also suggests that being in a positive mood broadens or expands the breadth of attentional selection such that information that may be useful đồ sộ the task at hand becomes more accessible for use. Consequently, greater accessibility of relevant information facilitates successful problem solving. Positive mood also facilitates resistance đồ sộ temptations, especially with regards đồ sộ unhealthy food choices.[5] Interpersonal relationships have also been shown đồ sộ have an effect on maintaining a positive mood. Social activities correlate with positive mood as well indicating that social interactions with people may increase an individual's positive mood.[6] Therefore, people that are isolated from society or in the out-group may have a more negative mood than thở individuals that have a strong social circle.[7]

Positive mood has also been proven đồ sộ show negative effects on cognition as well. According đồ sộ the article "Positive mood is associated with implicit use of distraction", "There is also evidence that individuals in positive moods show disrupted performance, at least when distracting information is present".[8] The article states that other things in their peripheral views can easily distract people who are in good moods; an example of this would be if you were trying đồ sộ study in the library (considering you are in a positive mood) you see people constantly walking around or making small noises. The study is basically stating that it would be harder for positive moods đồ sộ focus on the task at hand. In particular, happy people may be more sensitive đồ sộ the hedonic consequences of message processing than thở sad people. Thus, positive moods are predicted đồ sộ lead đồ sộ decreased processing only when thinking about the message is mood threatening. In comparison, if message processing allows a person đồ sộ maintain or enhance a pleasant state then positive moods need not lead đồ sộ lower levels of message scrutiny than thở negative moods.[9] It is assumed that initial information regarding the source either confirms or disconfirms mood-congruent expectations. Specifically, a positive mood may lead đồ sộ more positive expectations concerning source trustworthiness or likability than thở a negative mood. As a consequence, people in a positive mood should be more surprised when they encounter an untrustworthy or dislikable source rather than thở a trustworthy or likable source.[9]

Visual Representation of Commonly Experienced Moods

Negative mood[edit]

Like positive moods, negative moods have important implications for human mental and physical wellbeing. Moods are basic psychological states that can occur as a reaction đồ sộ an sự kiện or can surface for no apparent external cause. Since there is no intentional object that causes the negative mood, it has no specific start and stop date. It can last for hours, days, weeks, or longer. Negative moods can manipulate how individuals interpret and translate the world around them, and can also direct their behavior.

Negative moods can affect an individual's judgment and perception of objects and events.[10] In a study done by Niedenthal and Setterland (1994), research showed that individuals are tuned đồ sộ perceive things that are congruent with their current mood. Negative moods, mostly low-intense, can control how humans perceive emotion-congruent objects and events. For example, Niedenthal and Setterland used music đồ sộ induce positive and negative moods. Sad music was used as a stimulus đồ sộ induce negative moods, and participants labeled other things as negative. This proves that people's current moods tend đồ sộ affect their judgments and perceptions. These negative moods may lead đồ sộ problems in social relationships.[10] For example, one maladaptive negative mood regulation is an overactive strategy in which individuals over dramatize their negative feelings in order đồ sộ provoke tư vấn and feedback from others and đồ sộ guarantee their availability. A second type of maladaptive negative mood regulation is a disabling strategy in which individuals suppress their negative feelings and distance themselves from others in order đồ sộ avoid frustrations and anxiety caused by others' unavailability.

Negative moods have been connected with depression, anxiety, aggression, poor self-esteem, physiological stress and decrease in sexual arousal. In some individuals, there is evidence that depressed or anxious mood may increase sexual interest or arousal. In general, men were more likely than thở women đồ sộ report increased sexual drive during negative mood states. Negative moods are labeled as nonconstructive because it can affect a person's ability đồ sộ process information; making them focus solely on the sender of a message, while people in positive moods will pay more attention đồ sộ both the sender and the context of a message. This can lead đồ sộ problems in social relationships with others.

Negative moods, such as anxiety, often lead individuals đồ sộ misinterpret physical symptoms. According đồ sộ Jerry Suls, a professor at the University of Iowa, people who are depressed and anxious tend đồ sộ be in rumination. However, although an individual's affective states can influence the somatic changes, these individuals are not hypochondriacs.[11]

Although negative moods are generally characterized as bad, not all negative moods are necessarily damaging. The Negative State Relief Model states that human beings have an innate drive đồ sộ reduce negative moods. People can reduce their negative moods by engaging in any mood-elevating behavior (called Mood repair strategies), such as helping behavior, as it is paired with positive value such as smiles and thank you. Thus negative mood increases helpfulness because helping others can reduce one's own bad feelings.[12]

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Factors which affect mood[edit]

Lack of sleep[edit]

Sleep has a complex, and as yet not fully elucidated, relationship with mood. Most commonly if a person is sleep deprived he/she will become more irritable, angry, more prone đồ sộ stress, and less energized throughout the day. "Studies have shown that even partial sleep deprivation has a significant effect on mood. University of Pennsylvania researchers found that subjects who were limited đồ sộ only 4.5 hours of sleep a night for one week reported feeling more stressed, angry, sad, and mentally exhausted. When the subjects resumed normal sleep, they reported a dramatic improvement in mood."[13] Generally, evening oriented people, as compared đồ sộ morning ones, show decreased energy and pleasantness and heightened tension.[14]

However, in a subset of cases sleep deprivation can, paradoxically, lead đồ sộ increased energy and alertness and enhanced mood. This effect is most marked in persons with an eveningness type (so called night-owls) and people suffering from depression. For this reason it has sometimes been used as a treatment for major depressive disorder.[15][16]


Nature can also have a positive effect on mood. Studies have shown that exposure đồ sộ natural environments increases positive affect and decreases negative affect, meaning that your mood is often better when in a nature setting.[17] An example of this is how direct exposure đồ sộ sunlight has been proven đồ sộ improve mood and has been used đồ sộ treat symptoms of depression.[18][19] Further, walking outdoors as opposed đồ sộ walking indoors made individuals much happier, which additionally illustrates that nature has a positive effect on our mood.[20] While nature often improves our mood, it can worsen it as well. There is a common mood disorder called Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) that often occurs during the winter months when there is less daylight and it is colder outside. SAD is characterized by depressed mood, increased appetite, and increased sleep.[21] This displays how an individual's mood can be negatively effected by nature as well. Studies have also shown that depending on the season, temperature can regulate mood.[18]


Traditional dietary patterns characterized by vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, and whole grains, as opposed đồ sộ a western pattern diet characterized by processed foods, refined grains, sugary products, and beer were associated with lower odds for major depression or dysthymia (mood disorder) and for anxiety disorders in women.[22] Red meat is found đồ sộ be protective against mood and anxiety disorders.[23] Fruits and vegetables are associated with positive mood, independent of demographic or lifestyle factors.[24][25] Research indicates that alcohol and energy drinks are associated with mood changes.[26]

Facial expression[edit]

Research studies[27] indicate that voluntary facial expressions, such as smiling, can produce effects on the toàn thân that are similar đồ sộ those that result from the actual emotion, such as happiness. Paul Ekman and his colleagues studied facial expressions of emotions and linked specific emotions đồ sộ the movement of corresponding facial muscles. Each basic emotion is associated with a distinctive facial expression, due đồ sộ feedback from the expression that contributes đồ sộ the emotional feeling. Ekman found that these expressions of emotion are universal and recognizable across widely divergent cultures.


Hormones, which change with age, can also determine what type of mood someone is and how well they are able đồ sộ regulate their moods.[28]

Mood disorders[edit]

Depression, chronic stress, bipolar disorder, etc. are considered mood disorders. It has been suggested that such disorders result from chemical imbalances in the brain's neurotransmitters, however some research challenges this hypothesis.[29]


The idea of social mood as a "collectively shared state of mind" (Nofsinger 2005; Olson 2006) is attributed đồ sộ Robert Prechter and his socionomics. The notion is used primarily in the field of economics (investments).

In sociology, philosophy, and psychology, crowd behavior is the formation of a common mood directed toward an object of attention.[30]

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See also[edit]

  • Affect (psychology)
  • Affect measures
  • Dysthymia
  • Emotion
  • Feeling
  • Hypomania
  • Mood swing


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