meeting là gì

From Wikipedia, the không lấy phí encyclopedia

A meeting is when two or more people come together vĩ đại discuss one or more topics, often in a formal or business setting, but meetings also occur in a variety of other environments. Meetings can be used as size of group decision making.

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A meeting is a gathering of two or more people that has been convened for the purpose of achieving a common goal through verbal interaction, such as sharing information or reaching agreement.[1] Meetings may occur face-to-face or virtually, as mediated by communications technology, such as a telephone conference Hotline, a skyped conference Hotline or a videoconference. One Merriam-Webster dictionary defines a meeting as "an act or process of coming together" - for example "as [...] an assembly for a common purpose [...]".[2]

Meeting planners and other meeting professionals may use the term "meeting" vĩ đại denote an sự kiện booked at a khách sạn, convention center or any other venue dedicated vĩ đại such gatherings.[1][3]

Anthropologist Helen B. Schwartzman defines a meeting as "a communicative sự kiện involving three or more people who agree vĩ đại assemble for a purpose ostensibly related vĩ đại the functioning of an organization or group."[4] For her, meetings are characterized by "multiparty talk that is episodic in nature, and participants either develop or use specific conventions for regulating this talk."[4]


Meetings sometimes take place in conference rooms.
First staff meeting of a new executive
Training meeting about sustainable design. The photo shows a training meeting with factory workers in a stainless-steel ecodesign company in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The term "meeting" may refer vĩ đại a lecture (one presentation), seminar (typically several presentations, small audience, one day), conference (mid-size, one or more days), congress (large, several days), exhibition or trade show (with staffed stands being visited by passers-by), workshop (smaller, with active participants), training course, team-building session and kick-off sự kiện.

Common types of meeting include:

  • Committee meeting, a coming-together of a defined subset of an organization
  • Investigative meeting, generally when conducting a pre-interview, exit interview or a meeting among the investigator and representative
  • Kickoff meeting, the first meeting with a project team and the client of the project vĩ đại discuss the role of each team-member[5]
  • Town hall meeting, an informal public gathering.
  • Work meeting, which produces a product or intangible result such as a decision;[6] compare working group.
  • Board meeting, a meeting of the board of directors of an organization
  • Management meeting, a meeting among managers
  • Staff meeting, typically a meeting between a manager and those that report vĩ đại that manager
  • Team meeting, in project contexts - a meeting among colleagues working on various aspects of a team project.

Other varieties include breakfast meetings[7] off-site meetings (or Awayday meetings in the UK), and "stand-up meetings" where participants stand up vĩ đại encourage brevity.

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Since a meeting can be held once or often, the meeting organizer has vĩ đại determine the repetition and frequency of occurrence of the meeting: one-time, recurring meeting, or a series meeting such as a monthly "lunch and learn" sự kiện at a company, church, club or organization in which the placeholder is the same, but the agenda and topics vĩ đại be covered vary.[citation needed] In Russian, a "flying meeting" (Russian: летучий митинг, romanized: letuchij miting) is a hastily called brief meeting.[8]

Conversational analysis[edit]

Meetings have been studied using conversation analysis. Meetings are thought of as a distinct speech exchange system with different norms and rules. Participants may move in and out of the conversation exchange system during the meeting. A meeting will often have a chair who has some control over the discussion in the meeting. The chair may have a superior position in a social hierarchy or be appointed as a facilitator.[9]

The beginning of the meeting speech exchange system is often indicated by nonverbal cues, or stating the purpose of the meeting. In formal meetings, the chair has control over turn-taking in a conversation. In informal meetings the participants often decide for themselves who turn taking functions with the chair occasionally intervening. Non-verbal communication with the chair may be used vĩ đại take a turn.[9]

Often the chair will control the choice of topic of discussion, different chairs will control the conversation in different ways. A pre-closing formulation is an individual's summarization of the groups understanding of a topic. Silence is often used vĩ đại indicate agreement vĩ đại this final formalization. Turns within a topic are expected vĩ đại be related vĩ đại previous turns of the topic as a whole. In settings turns are long and more loosely related vĩ đại the previous turns. In these cases, the speaker may introduce the subject matter of the turn and related it vĩ đại the agenda topic.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Meeting and Convention Planners. (2009, December 17). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
  2. ^ Meeting – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (n.d.). Dictionary and Thesaurus – Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
  3. ^ Montgomery, Rhonda J.; Strick, Sandra K. (1994). Meetings, Conventions, and Expositions: An Introduction vĩ đại the Industry. New York: Wiley. ISBN 9780471284390. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
  4. ^ a b Schwartzman, Helen B. (1989). The Meeting : Gatherings in Organizations and Communities. Springer US. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4899-0885-8. OCLC 859586941.
  5. ^ Sullivant, J. (2007). Strategies for Protecting National Critical Infrastructure Assets: A Focus on Problem-Solving. Wiley. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-470-22836-4. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  6. ^ "Staff Meeting In Organization-5 Sure Shot Benefits - Bolly Movie Review Tech". 2022-10-19. Retrieved 2022-10-20.
  7. ^ Chaney, L.H.; Martin, J.S. (2007). The Essential Guide vĩ đại Business Etiquette. Praeger. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-275-99714-4. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  8. ^ Mokiyenko, Valeri; Nikitina, Tatjana (1998). "митинг". Толковый словарь языка Совдепии [Explanatory dictionary of the language of the Sovdepia] (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: Фолио-Пресс. ISBN 5-7627-0103-4. Retrieved 2018-09-21. Летучий митинг[:] Экстренно собранный непродолжительный митинг.
  9. ^ a b Svennevig, Jan (2012-02-01). "Interaction in workplace meetings". Discourse Studies. 14 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1177/1461445611427203. ISSN 1461-4456. S2CID 143946230.

Further reading[edit]

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Look up meeting in Wiktionary, the không lấy phí dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has truyền thông media related vĩ đại Meetings.

  • Johansen, Robert; Vallee, Jacques; Spangler, Kathleen. "Electronic Meetings: Technical Alternatives". ACM Digital Library. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  • Olson, Gary M.; Olson, Judith S.; Carter, Mark R. (1992). "Small group design meetings: an analysis of collaboration". Human-Computer Interaction. 7 (4): 347–374. doi:10.1207/s15327051hci0704_1. ISSN 0737-0024. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  • Effective Meetings at Work. Taylor & Francis. 2007. ISBN 978-1-136-40844-1. Retrieved October 1, 2018. 112 pages.