manipulate là gì

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In psychology, manipulation is defined as subterfuge designed to tướng influence or control another, usually in a manner which facilitates one's personal aims. The methods used distort or orient the interlocutor's perception of reality, in particular through seduction, suggestion, persuasion and non-voluntary or consensual submission.[1][2] Definitions for the term vary in which behavior is specifically included, influenced by both culture and whether referring to tướng the general population or used in clinical contexts.[3] Manipulation is generally considered a dishonest size of social influence as it is used at the expense of others.[4]

Manipulative tendencies may derive from cluster B personality disorders such as narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder.[5] Manipulation is also correlated with higher levels of emotional intelligence,[6][5] and is a chief component of the personality construct dubbed Machiavellianism.[7][5]

Manipulation differs from general influence and persuasion. Non-manipulative influence is generally perceived to tướng be harmless and it is not seen as unduly coercive to tướng the individual's right of acceptance or rejection of influence.[8] Persuasion is the ability to tướng move others to tướng a desired action, usually within the context of a specific goal. Persuasion often attempts to tướng influence ones beliefs, religion, motivations, or behavior. Influence and persuasion are neither positive nor negative, unlike manipulation which is strictly negative.[9] Manipulation is often seen as negative, though some argue that it has positive aspects.[contradictory] Positive manipulation is a size of practice where an individual can turn any aspect that may not be going well into a positive experience. Ultimately, one's goal is to tướng not be manipulated but if the situation does arise, the individual is able to tướng manifest for the best. Self-development provides the opportunity for an individual to tướng grow, and help influence the behaviors of others as well.[10][clarification needed][relevant?] Individuals who behave in prosocial behavior manners can be manipulated to tướng have positive mood reactions. Alongside showing encouragement during a time where an individual is feeling down can result in improvements in mood.[11][relevant?]

Elements of manipulation[edit]

The motivation for manipulation can be self-serving or it can be intended to tướng help or benefit others.[6] Antisocial manipulation is using "skills to tướng advance personal agendas or self-serving motives at the expense of others",[6] pro-social behavior is a voluntary act intended to tướng help or benefit another individual or group of individuals and is an important part of empathy.[12][13]

Different measures of manipulativeness focus on different aspects or expressions of manipulation, and tend to tướng paint slightly different pictures of its predictors. Features such as low empathy, high narcissism, use of self-serving rationalisations, and an interpersonal style marked by high agency (dominance) and low communion (i.e. coldheartedness) are consistent across measures.[14][15][16]

Manipulative behaviors typically exploit the following vulnerabilities:

Vulnerability Description
Naïveté or immaturity People who find it too hard to tướng accept the idea that some people are cunning, devious and ruthless or are "in denial" if they are being taken advantage of. They will acknowledge the fact of being manipulated only if it occurs too often.[17]
Over-conscientiousness People who are much harder on themselves than vãn on others often are too willing to tướng give another the benefit of the doubt and see their side of things while blaming themselves for hurting the manipulator.[17]
Low self-esteem People who struggle with self-doubting, lacking in confidence and assertiveness, or chronically unsure of their right to tướng pursue their legitimate wants and needs. They are likely to tướng go on the defensive too easily when challenged by an aggressive personality.[17]
Over-intellectualization People who believe that others only tự hurtful things when there's some legitimate, understandable reason for manipulation. They might delude themselves into believing that uncovering and understanding all the reasons for the manipulator's behavior will be sufficient to tướng make things different.[17]
Emotional dependency People who have a submissive or dependent personality. The more emotionally dependent a person is, the more vulnerable they are to tướng being exploited and manipulated.[17]

Manipulation and mental illnesses[edit]

Individuals with the following mental health issues are often prone to tướng manipulative behavior:

Deceitfulness and exceptional manipulative abilities are the most common traits among antisocial personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder.[19] It is the major feature found in the dark triad personality traits, particularly Machiavellianism.[20][21]

Antisocial personality disorder or sociopathy refers to tướng individuals who will not realize the rights and wrongs of their action and the ability to tướng neglect others emotionally. People with this disorder may not feel that they are doing anything wrong and therefore feel không tính phí to tướng manipulate others. This mental disorder relies on features of deceitfulness and arrogance acts.[22]

Borderline Personality Disorder is unique in the grouping as "borderline" manipulation is characterized as unintentional and dysfunctional manipulation.[23] Marsha M. Linehan has stated that people with borderline personality disorder often exhibit behaviors which are not truly manipulative, but are erroneously interpreted as such.[24] According to tướng Linehan, these behaviors often appear as unthinking manifestations of intense pain, and are often not deliberate as to tướng be considered truly manipulative. In the DSM-V, manipulation was removed as a defining characteristic of borderline personality disorder.[23]

Conduct disorder is where behavioral and age appropriate actions are taken advantage of, primarily occurring in children and adolescents. Individuals with this are characterized as "lack of empathy, sense of guilt, and shallow emotion". These behaviors are shown in connection to tướng manipulation by tying in narcissistic traits. Aggression and violence are two factors pursued by individuals with this disorder. In order for this disorder to tướng be consistent and shown, the progression must be made for at least 12 months.[25]

Factitious disorder is a mental illness in which individuals who purposely forge symptoms, physically or psychologically. Fabricating illnesses allows individuals to tướng feel a thrill[26] and receive không tính phí aid in hospital admissions and treatment. Feelings of persistence, abuse in early childhood, and excessive thoughts were common for these individuals who connected to tướng Borderline Personality Disorder.[clarification needed][27]

Histrionic personality disorder foresee individuals who seek scrutinizing behaviors, inappropriate alluring tactics, and irregular emotional patterns. Histrionic symptoms include "seeking reassurance, switching emotional, and feeling uncomfortable." Histrionic and Narcissistic Personality Disorders overlap because decisions are sporadic and unreliable. These individuals can experience these symptoms from failed attempts of depression lượt thích symptoms.[clarification needed][28]

Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized as feelings of superiority, a sense of grandiosity, exhibitionism, charming but also exploitive behaviors in the interpersonal domain name, success, beauty, feelings of entitlement and a lack of empathy.[29] Those with this disorder often engage in assertive self enhancement and antagonistic self protection.[29] All of these factors can lead an individual with narcissistic personality disorder to tướng manipulate others.

Assessment tools[edit]

Emotional manipulation scale[edit]

The emotional manipulation scale is a ten-item questionnaire developed in 2007 through factor analysis, primarily to tướng measure the capability of manipulative behavior and the Machiavellianism personality trait.[30] At the time of publication, emotional intelligence assessments did not specifically examine manipulative behavior or Machiavellianism and were instead predominantly focussed on Big Five personality trait assessment.[30]

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Managing the emotions of others scale[edit]

The Managing the emotions of others scale (MEOS) was developed in 2013 through factor analysis to tướng measure the ability to tướng change emotions of others.[31] The survey questions measure six categories: mood (or emotional state) enhancement, mood worsening, concealing emotions, capacity for inauthenticity, poor emotion skills, and using diversion to tướng enhance mood. The enhancement, worsening and diversion categories have been used to tướng identify the ability and willingness of manipulative behavior.[6] The MEOS has also been used for assessing emotional intelligence, and has been compared to tướng the HEXACO model of personality structure, for which the capacity for inauthenticity category in the MEOS was found to tướng correspond to tướng low honesty-humility scores on the HEXACO.[32]

In popular psychology[edit]

Harriet B. Braiker[edit]

Harriet B. Braiker identified the following ways that manipulators control their victims:[33]

  • Positive reinforcement: includes praise, superficial charm, superficial sympathy (crocodile tears), excessive apologizing, money, approval, gifts, attention, facial expressions such as a forced laugh or smile, and public recognition.
  • Negative reinforcement: involves removing one from a negative situation as a reward.
  • Gaslighting.
  • Intermittent or partial reinforcement: Partial or intermittent negative reinforcement can create an effective climate of fear and doubt. Partial or intermittent positive reinforcement can encourage the victim to tướng persist.
  • Punishment: includes nagging, yelling, the silent treatment, intimidation, threats, swearing, emotional blackmail, guilt trips, sulking, crying, and playing the victim.
  • Traumatic one-trial learning: using verbal abuse, explosive anger, or other intimidating behavior to tướng establish dominance or superiority; even one incident of such behavior can condition or train victims to tướng avoid upsetting, confronting or contradicting the manipulator.

According to tướng Braiker, manipulators exploit the following vulnerabilities (buttons) that may exist in victims:[33]

  • the desire to tướng please
  • addiction to tướng earning the approval and acceptance of others
  • emotophobia (fear of negative emotion; i.e. a fear of expressing anger, frustration or disapproval)
  • lack of assertiveness and ability to tướng say no
  • blurry sense of identity (with soft personal boundaries)
  • low self-reliance
  • external locus of control

Manipulators can have various possible motivations, including but not limited to:[33]

  • the need to tướng advance their own purposes and personal gain at (virtually any) cost to tướng others
  • a strong need to tướng attain feelings of power and superiority in relationships with others - compare megalomania (associated with, for example, narcissistic personality disorder)[34]
  • a want and need to tướng feel in control
  • a desire to tướng gain a feeling of power over others in order to tướng raise their perception of self-esteem
  • furtherance of cult dynamics in recruiting or retaining followers[35]
  • boredom, or growing tired of one's surroundings; seeing manipulation as a game more than vãn hurting others
  • covert agendas, criminal or otherwise, including financial manipulation (often seen when intentionally targeting the elderly or unsuspecting, unprotected wealthy for the sole purpose of obtaining victims' financial assets)
  • not identifying with underlying emotions (including experiencing commitment phobia), and subsequent rationalization (offenders tự not manipulate consciously, but rather try to tướng convince themselves of the invalidity of their own emotions)
  • lack of self-control over impulsive and anti-social behaviour - leading to tướng pre-emptive or reactionary manipulation to tướng maintain image

George K. Simon[edit]

According to tướng psychology author George K. Simon, successful psychological manipulation primarily involves the manipulator:[17]

  • Concealing aggressive intentions and behaviors and being affable.
  • Knowing the psychological vulnerabilities of the victim to tướng determine which tactics are likely to tướng be the most effective.
  • Having a sufficient level of ruthlessness to tướng have no qualms about causing harm to tướng the victim if necessary.

Techniques of manipulators may include:

Techniques Description
Lying (by commission) It is hard to tướng tell if somebody is lying at the time they tự it, although often the truth may be apparent later when it is too late. One way to tướng minimize the chances of being lied to tướng is to tướng understand that some personality types (particularly psychopaths) are experts at lying and cheating, doing it frequently, and often in subtle ways.
Lying by omission This is a subtle size of lying by withholding a significant amount of the truth. This technique is also used in propaganda.
Denial Manipulator refuses to tướng admit that they have done something wrong.
Rationalization An excuse made by the manipulator for inappropriate behavior. Rationalization is closely related to tướng spin.
Minimization This is a type of denial coupled with rationalization. The manipulator asserts that their behavior is not as harmful or irresponsible as someone else was suggesting.
Selective inattention or selective attention Manipulator refuses to tướng pay attention to tướng anything that may distract from their agenda.
Diversion Manipulator not giving a straight answer to tướng a straight question and instead being diversionary, steering the conversation onto another topic.
Evasion Similar to tướng diversion but giving irrelevant, rambling, or vague responses
Covert intimidation Manipulator putting the victim onto the defensive by using veiled (subtle, indirect or implied) threats.
Guilt trip A special kind of intimidation tactic. A manipulator suggests to tướng the conscientious victim that they tự not care enough, are too selfish or have it too easy. This can result in the victim feeling bad, keeping them in a self-doubting, anxious and submissive position.
Shaming Manipulator uses sarcasm and put-downs to tướng increase fear and self-doubt in the victim. Manipulators use this tactic to tướng make others feel unworthy and therefore defer to tướng them. Manipulators can make one feel ashamed for even daring to tướng challenge them. It is an effective way to tướng foster a sense of inadequacy in the victim.
Vilifying the victim This tactic is a powerful means of putting the victim on the defensive while simultaneously masking the aggressive intent of the manipulator, while the manipulator falsely accuses the victim as being an abuser in response when the victim stands up for or defends themselves or their position.
Playing the victim role Manipulator portrays themself as a victim of circumstance or of someone else's behavior in order to tướng gain pity, sympathy or evoke compassion and thereby get something from another. Caring and conscientious people often cannot stand to tướng see anyone suffering and the manipulator often finds it easy to tướng play on sympathy to tướng get cooperation.
Playing the servant role Cloaking a self-serving agenda in the guise of a service to tướng a more noble cause.
Seduction Manipulator uses charm, praise, flattery or overtly supporting others in order to tướng get them to tướng lower their defenses and give their trust and loyalty to tướng the manipulator. They will also offer help with the intent to tướng gain trust and access to tướng an unsuspecting victim they have charmed.
Projecting the blame (blaming others) Manipulating scapegoats in often subtle, hard-to-detect ways. Often, the manipulator will project their own thinking onto the victim, making the victim look lượt thích they have done something wrong. Manipulators will also claim that the victim is the one who is at fault for believing lies that they were conned into believing, as if the victim forced the manipulator to tướng be deceitful. All blame, except for the part that is used by the manipulator to tướng accept false guilt, is done in order to tướng make the victim feel guilty about making healthy choices, correct thinking and good behaviors. It is frequently used as a means of psychological and emotional manipulation and control. Manipulators lie about lying, only to tướng re-manipulate the original, less believable story into a "more acceptable" truth that the victim will believe. Projecting lies as being the truth is another common method of control and manipulation. Manipulators may falsely accuse the victim of "deserving to tướng be treated that way". They often claim that the victim is crazy or abusive, especially when there is evidence against the manipulator.
Feigning innocence Manipulator tries to tướng suggest that any harm done was unintentional or that they did not tự something that they were accused of. Manipulator may put on a look of surprise or indignation. This tactic makes the victim question their own judgment and possibly their own sanity.
Feigning confusion Manipulator tries to tướng play dumb by pretending they tự not know what the victim is talking about or is confused about an important issue brought to tướng their attention. The manipulator intentionally confuses the victim in order for the victim to tướng doubt their own accuracy of perception, often pointing out key elements that the manipulator intentionally included in case there is room for doubt. Sometimes manipulators will have used cohorts in advance to tướng help back up their story.
Brandishing anger Manipulator uses anger to tướng brandish sufficient emotional intensity and rage to tướng shock the victim into submission. The manipulator is not actually angry, they just put on an act. They just want what they want and get "angry" when denied. Controlled anger is often used as a manipulation tactic to tướng avoid confrontation, avoid telling the truth or to tướng further hide intent. There are often threats used by the manipulator of going to tướng the police, or falsely reporting abuses that the manipulator intentionally contrived to tướng scare or intimidate the victim into submission. Blackmail and other threats of exposure are other forms of controlled anger and manipulation, especially when the victim refuses initial requests or suggestions by the manipulator. Anger is also used as a defense ví the manipulator can avoid telling truths at inconvenient times or circumstances. Anger is often used as a tool or defense to tướng ward off inquiries or suspicion. The victim becomes more focused on the anger instead of the manipulation tactic.
Bandwagon effect Manipulator comforts the victim into submission by claiming (whether true or false) that many people already have done something, and the victim should as well. Such manipulation can be seen in peer pressure situations, often occurring in scenarios where the manipulator attempts to tướng influence the victim into trying drugs or other substances.

Martin Kantor[edit]

Kantor advises in his 2006 book The Psychopathology of Everyday Life: How Antisocial Personality Disorder Affects All of Us that vulnerability to tướng psychopathic manipulators involves being too:[36]

  • Dependent – dependent people need to tướng be loved and are therefore gullible and liable to tướng say yes to tướng something to tướng which they should say no.
  • Immature – has impaired judgment and ví tends to tướng believe exaggerated advertising claims.
  • Naïve – cannot believe there are dishonest people in the world, or takes it for granted that if there are any, they will not be allowed to tướng prey on others.
  • Impressionable – overly seduced by charmers.
  • Trusting – people who are honest often assume that everyone else is honest. They are more likely to tướng commit themselves to tướng people they hardly know without checking credentials, etc., and less likely to tướng question so-called experts.
  • Carelessness – not giving sufficient amount of thought or attention to tướng harm or errors.
  • Lonely – lonely people may accept any offer of human liên hệ. A psychopathic stranger may offer human companionship for a price.
  • Narcissistic – narcissists are prone to tướng falling for unmerited flattery.
  • Impulsive – make snap decisions.
  • Altruistic – the opposite of psychopathic: too honest, too fair, too empathetic.
    • Not being listed in the book, implication carries that self-unaware psychopaths will be manipulated easily because of their lack of regret, meanness, boldness and disinhibition.
  • Frugal – cannot say no to tướng a bargain even if they know the reason it is ví cheap.
  • Materialistic – easy prey for loan sharks or get-rich-quick schemes.
  • Greedy – the greedy and dishonest may fall prey to tướng a psychopath who can easily entice them to tướng act in an immoral way.
  • Masochistic – lack self-respect and ví unconsciously let psychopaths take advantage of them. They think they deserve it out of a sense of guilt.
  • The elderly – the elderly can become fatigued and less capable of multi-tasking. When hearing a sales pitch they are less likely to tướng consider that it could be a con cái. They are prone to tướng giving money to tướng someone with a hard-luck story. See elder abuse.

See also[edit]


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  29. ^ a b Wetzel E, Leckelt M, Gerlach TM, Back MD (July 2016). "Distinguishing Subgroups of Narcissists with Latent Class Analysis". European Journal of Personality. 30 (4): 374–389. doi:10.1002/per.2062. ISSN 0890-2070. S2CID 151869472.
  30. ^ a b Austin EJ, Farrelly D, Black C, Moore H (July 2007). "Emotional intelligence, Machiavellianism and emotional manipulation: Does EI have a dark side?". Personality and Individual Differences. 43 (1): 179–189. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.11.019. ISSN 0191-8869.
  31. ^ Austin EJ, O'Donnell MM (October 2013). "Development and preliminary validation of a scale to tướng assess managing the emotions of others". Personality and Individual Differences. 55 (7): 834–839. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.07.005. ISSN 0191-8869.
  32. ^ Austin EJ, Vahle N (May 2016). "Associations of the Managing the Emotions of Others Scale (MEOS) with HEXACO personality and with trait emotional intelligence at the factor and facet level". Personality and Individual Differences. 94: 348–353. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.01.047. ISSN 0191-8869.
  33. ^ a b c Braiker HB (2004). Who's Pulling Your Strings ? How to tướng Break The Cycle of Manipulation. ISBN 978-0-07-144672-3.
  34. ^ Giovacchini PL (1996). Treatment of Primitive Mental States. Master work series. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson. p. 24. ISBN 9781568218083. Retrieved 24 July 2021. These are early ego states that are characterized by megalomanic feelings. Freud's (1914a) mô tả tìm kiếm of 'his majesty, the baby' well illustrates this situation of omnipotent manipulation.
  35. ^ Halperin DA, ed. (1983). Psychodynamic Perspectives on Religion, Sect, and Cult. Littleton, Massachusetts: J. Wright, PSG, Incorporated. p. 364. ISBN 9780723670292. Retrieved 24 July 2021. [...] theologians and philosophers have, for the most part, avoided other questions which usually fall within their purview: ethical questions, for instance, lượt thích those highlighted by the calculated deceit and crass manipulation integral to tướng many cults.
  36. ^ Kantor M (2006). The Psychopathology of Everyday Life: How Antisocial Personality Disorder Affects All of Us. ISBN 978-0-275-98798-5.

Further reading[edit]


  • Barber BK (2001). Intrusive Parenting: How Psychological Control Affects Children and Adolescents. ISBN 978-1-55798-828-7.
  • Bowman RP, Cooper K, Miles R, Carr T (1998). Innovative Strategies for Unlocking Difficult Children: Attention Seekers, Manipulative Students, Apathetic Students, Hostile Students. ISBN 978-1-889636-08-5.
  • McMillan DL (2008). But He Says He Loves Me: How to tướng Avoid Being Trapped in a Manipulative Relationship. ISBN 978-1-74175-196-3.
  • Sasson JE (2002). Stop Negotiating With Your Teen: Strategies for Parenting Your Angry, Manipulative, Moody, or Depressed Adolescent. ISBN 978-0-399-52789-0.
  • Stern R (2007). The Gaslight Effect: How to tướng Spot and Survive the Hidden Manipulation Others Use to tướng Control Your Life. ISBN 978-0-76792782-6.
  • Swihart Jr EW, Cotter Phường (1998). The Manipulative Child: How to tướng Regain Control and Raise Resilient, Resourceful, and Independent Kids. ISBN 978-0-553-37949-5.

Academic papers

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