hobbies là gì

A collection of assorted seashells spread across a white background.
Hobby: collecting seashells
In Tristram Shandy, the term "hobby-horse" was used đồ sộ refer đồ sộ whimsical obsessions, which led đồ sộ the current use of the word "hobby"

A hobby is considered đồ sộ be a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one's leisure time. Hobbies include collecting themed items and objects, engaging in creative and artistic pursuits, playing sports, or pursuing other amusements. Participation in hobbies encourages acquiring substantial skills and knowledge in that area. A list of hobbies changes with renewed interests and developing fashions, making it diverse and lengthy. Hobbies tend đồ sộ follow trends in society, for example stamp collecting was popular during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as postal systems were the main means of communication, while đoạn Clip games are more popular nowadays following technological advances. The advancing production and technology of the nineteenth century provided workers with more leisure time đồ sộ engage in hobbies. Because of this, the efforts of people investing in hobbies has increased with time.

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Hobbyists may be identified under three sub-categories: casual leisure which is intrinsically rewarding, short-lived, pleasurable activity requiring little or no preparation, serious leisure which is the systematic pursuit of an amateur, hobbyist, or volunteer that is substantial, rewarding and results in a sense of accomplishment, and finally project-based leisure which is a short-term, often one-off, project that is rewarding.[1]


A grey-haired person using a computer with two monitors.
Writing and editing articles for Wikipedia is a hobby for some people.

In the 16th century, the term "hobby" had the meaning of "small horse and pony". The term "hobby horse" was documented in a 1557 payment confirmation for a "Hobbyhorse" from Reading, England.[2] The item, originally called a "Tourney Horse", was made of a wooden or basketwork frame with an artificial tail and head. It was designed for a child đồ sộ mimic riding a real horse. By 1816 the derivative, "hobby", was introduced into the vocabulary of a number of English people.[3] Over the course of subsequent centuries, the term came đồ sộ be associated with recreation and leisure. In the 17th century, the term was used in a pejorative sense by suggesting that a hobby was a childish pursuit, however, in the 18th century with more industrial society and more leisure time, hobbies took on greater respectability.[4] A hobby is also called a pastime, derived from the use of hobbies đồ sộ pass the time. A hobby became an activity that is practiced regularly and usually with some worthwhile purpose.[4] Hobbies are usually, but not always, practiced primarily for interest and enjoyment, rather than thở financial reward.

A special interest is a highly focused interest that is commonly held by autistic individuals.[5] It is a size of hobby that is commonly associated with neurodivergent people.[6][7][8] Neurotypical people also develop special interests, in the size of hobbies.[9]


Prior đồ sộ the mid-19th century, hobbies were generally considered as an obsession, childish or trivial, with negative connotations.[10] However, as early as 1676 Sir Matthew Hale, in Contemplations Moral and Divine, wrote "Almost every person hath some hobby horse or other wherein he prides himself."[11] He was acknowledging that a "hobby horse" produces a legitimate sense of pride. The cultural shift towards acceptance of hobbies was thought đồ sộ begin during the mid 18th century as working people had more regular hours of work and greater leisure time, spending more time đồ sộ pursue interests that brought them satisfaction.[4] However, there was concern that these working people might not use their leisure time in worthwhile pursuits. "The hope of weaning people away from bad habits by the provision of counter-attractions came đồ sộ the fore in the 1830s, and has rarely waned since. Initially, the bad habits were perceived đồ sộ be of a sensual and physical nature, and the counter attractions, or perhaps more accurately alternatives, deliberately cultivated rationality and the intellect."[12] The book and magazine trade of the day encouraged worthwhile hobbies and pursuits. The burgeoning manufacturing trade made materials used in hobbies cheap and was responsive đồ sộ the changing interests of hobbyists.

In 1941, George Orwell identified hobbies as central đồ sộ European culture at the time: "Another English characteristic which is ví much a part of us that we barely notice it … is the addiction đồ sộ hobbies and spare-time occupations, the prolateness of English life. We are a nation of flower-lovers, but also a nation of stamp-collectors, pigeon-fanciers, amateur carpenters, coupon-snippers, darts-players, crossword-puzzle fans. All the culture that is most truly native centers round things which even when they are communal are not official—the pub, the football match, the back garden, the fireside and the 'nice cup of tea'."[13]

Deciding what đồ sộ include in a list of hobbies provokes debate because it is difficult đồ sộ decide which pleasurable pass-times can also be described as hobbies. During the 20th century the term hobby suggested activities, such as stamp collecting, embroidery, knitting, painting, woodwork, and photography. Typically the mô tả tìm kiếm did not include activities lượt thích listening đồ sộ music, watching television, or reading. These latter activities bring pleasure, but lack the sense of achievement usually associated with a hobby. They are usually not structured, organized pursuits, as most hobbies are. The pleasure of a hobby is usually associated with making something of value or achieving something of value. "Such leisure is socially valorized precisely because it produces feelings of satisfaction with something that looks very much lượt thích work but that is done of its own sake."[4] "Hobbies are a contradiction: they take work and turn it into leisure, and take leisure and turn it into work."[4] A 2018 study using survey results identified the term "hobby" đồ sộ most accurately describe activities associated with making or collecting objects, especially when done alone.[10]

Cultural trends related đồ sộ hobbies change with time. In the 21st century, the đoạn Clip game industry has been popular as a hobby involving millions of children and adults. Stamp collecting declined along with the importance of the postal system. Woodwork and knitting declined as hobbies, because manufactured goods provide cheap alternatives for handmade goods. Through the mạng internet, an online community has become a hobby for many people; sharing advice, information and tư vấn, and in some cases, allowing a traditional hobby, such as collecting, đồ sộ flourish and tư vấn trading in a new environment.[citation needed]


Hobbyists are a part of a wider group of people engaged in leisure pursuits where the boundaries of each group overlap đồ sộ some extent. The Serious Leisure Perspective[14] groups hobbyists with amateurs and volunteers and identifies three broad groups of leisure activity with hobbies being found mainly in the Serious leisure category. Casual leisure is intrinsically rewarding, short-lived, pleasurable activity requiring little or no preparation. Serious leisure is the systematic pursuit of an amateur, hobbyist, or volunteer that is substantial, rewarding and results in a sense of accomplishment. Finally, project-based leisure is a short-term often a one-off project that is rewarding.[1]

The terms amateur and hobbyist are often used interchangeably. Stebbins[14] has a framework which distinguishes the terms in a useful categorization of leisure in which casual leisure is separated from serious Leisure. He describes serious leisure as undertaken by amateurs, hobbyists and volunteers. Amateurs engage in pursuits that have a professional counterpart, such as playing an instrument or astronomy. Hobbyists engage in five broad types of activity: collecting, making and tinkering (like embroidery and xế hộp restoration), activity participation (like fishing and singing), sports and games, and liberal-arts hobbies (like languages, cuisine, literature). Volunteers commit đồ sộ organizations where they work as guides, counsellors, gardeners and ví on. The separation of the amateur from the hobbyist is because the amateur has the ethos of the professional practitioner as a guide đồ sộ practice. An amateur clarinetist is conscious of the role and procedures of a professional clarinetist.

A large proportion of hobbies are mainly solitary in nature.[4]: 28  However, individual pursuit of a hobby often includes club memberships, organized sharing of products and regular communication between participants. For many hobbies there is an important role in being in touch with fellow hobbyists. Some hobbies are of communal nature, lượt thích choral singing and volunteering.

People who engage in hobbies have an interest in and time đồ sộ pursue them. Children have been an important group of hobbyists because they are enthusiastic for collecting, making and exploring, in addition đồ sộ this they have the leisure time that allows them đồ sộ pursue those hobbies. The growth in hobbies occurred during industrialization which gave workers phối time for leisure. During the Depression there was an increase in the participation in hobbies because the unemployed had the time and a desire đồ sộ be purposefully occupied.[15] Hobbies are often pursued with an increased interest by retired people because they have the time and seek the intellectual and physical stimulation a hobby provides.

Types of hobbies[edit]

Hobbies are a diverse phối of activities and it is difficult đồ sộ categorize them in a logical manner. The following categorization of hobbies was developed by Stebbins.[1]


Collecting includes seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying and storing.[4] Collecting is appealing đồ sộ many people due đồ sộ their interest in a particular subject and a desire đồ sộ categorize and make order out of complexity. Some collectors are generalists, accumulating items from countries of the world. Others focus on a subtopic within their area of interest, perhaps 19th century postage stamps, milk bottle labels from Sussex, or Mongolian harnesses and tack, Firearms (both modern and vintage).

A photo album spread open đồ sộ show a collection of stamps.
A stamp album used in stamp collecting.

Collecting is an ancient hobby, with the list of coin collectors showing Caesar Augustus as one. Sometimes collectors have turned their hobby into a business, becoming commercial dealers that trade in the items being collected.

An alternative đồ sộ collecting physical objects is collecting records of events of a particular kind. Examples include train spotting, bird-watching, aircraft spotting, railfans, and any other size of systematic recording a particular phenomenon. The recording size can be written, photographic, online, etc.

Making and tinkering[edit]

Making and tinkering includes working on self-motivated projects for fulfillment. These projects may be progressive, irregular tasks performed over a long period of time.[1] Making and Tinkering hobbies include higher-end projects, such as building or restoring a xế hộp or building a computer from individual parts, lượt thích CPUs and SSDs. For computer savvy do-it-yourself hobbyists, CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining may also popular. A CNC machine can be assembled and programmed đồ sộ make different parts from wood or metal.

Tinkering is 'dabbling' with the making process, often applied đồ sộ the hobby of tinkering with xế hộp repairs, and various kinds of restoration: of furniture, antique cars, etc. It also applies đồ sộ household tinkering: repairing a wall, laying a pathway, etc. Examples of Making and Tinkering hobbies include Scale modeling, model engineering, 3 chiều printing, dressmaking, and cooking.

Scale modeling is making a replica of a real-life object in a smaller scale and dates back đồ sộ prehistoric times with small clay "dolls" and other children's toys that have been found near known populated areas. Some of the earliest scale models of residences were found in Cucuteni–Trypillia culture in Eastern Europe. These artifacts were dated đồ sộ be around 3000-6000 BC.[16] Similar models dating back đồ sộ the same period were found in ancient Egypt, India, Trung Quốc and Mesopotamia archaeological sites.[16]

At the turn of the Industrial Age and through the 1920s, some families could afford things such as electric trains, wind-up toys (typically boats or cars) and the increasingly valuable tin yêu toy soldiers. Scale modeling as we know it today became popular shortly after World War II. Before 1946, children as well as adults were nội dung in carving and shaping wooden replicas from block wood kits, often depicting enemy aircraft đồ sộ help with identification in case of an invasion.[citation needed]

With the advent of modern plastics, the amount of skill required đồ sộ get the basic shape accurately shown for any given subject was lessened, making it easier for people of all ages đồ sộ begin assembling replicas in varying scales. Superheroes, aero planes, boats, cars, tanks, artillery, and even figures of soldiers became quite popular subjects đồ sộ build, paint and display. Although almost any subject can be found in almost any scale, there are common scales for such miniatures which remain constant today.

Model engineering refers đồ sộ building functioning machinery in metal, such as internal combustion motors and live steam models or locomotives. This is a demanding hobby that requires a multitude of large and expensive tools, such as lathes and mills. This hobby originated in the United Kingdom in the late 19th century, later spreading and flourishing in the mid-20th century. Due đồ sộ the expense and space required, it is becoming rare.

A coffee-table sized model railroad

3D Printing is a relatively new technology and already a major hobby as the cost of printers has fallen sharply. It is a good example of how hobbyists quickly engage with new technologies, communicate with one another and become producers related đồ sộ their former hobby. 3 chiều modeling is the process of making mathematical representations of three dimensional items and is an aspect of 3 chiều printing.

Dressmaking has been a major hobby up until the late 20th century, in order đồ sộ make cheap clothes, but also as a creative design and craft challenge. It has been reduced by the low cost of manufactured clothes.

Cooking is for some people an interest, a hobby, a challenge and a source of significant satisfaction. For many other people it is a job, a chore, a duty, lượt thích cleaning. In the early 21st century the importance of cooking as a hobby was demonstrated by the high popularity of competitive television cooking programs.

Activity participation[edit]

Activity participation includes partaking in "non-competitive, rule-based pursuits."[1]

Outdoor pursuits are the group of activities which occur outdoors. These hobbies include gardening, hill walking, hiking, backpacking, cycling, canoeing, climbing, caving, fishing, hunting, target shooting (informal or formal), wildlife viewing (as birdwatching) and engaging in watersports and snowsports.

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One large subset of outdoor pursuits is gardening. Residential gardening most often takes place in or about one's own residence, in a space referred đồ sộ as the garden. Although a garden typically is located on the land near a residence, it may also be located on a roof, in an atrium, on a balcony, in a windowbox, or on a patio or vivarium.

Gardening also takes place in non-residential green areas, such as parks, public or semi-public gardens (botanical gardens or zoological gardens), amusement and theme parks, along transportation corridors, and around tourist attractions and hotels. In these situations, a staff of gardeners or groundskeepers maintains the gardens.

A variety of flowers and vegetables in an indoor garden.

Indoor gardening is concerned with growing houseplants within a residence or building, in a conservatory, or in a greenhouse. Indoor gardens are sometimes incorporated into air conditioning or heating systems.

Water gardening is concerned with growing plants that have adapted đồ sộ pools and ponds, along with aquascaping in planted aquariums. Bog gardens are also considered a type of water garden. A simple water garden may consist solely of a tub containing the water and plants.

Container gardening is concerned with growing plants in containers that are placed above the ground.

Liberal arts pursuits[edit]

Flash photo of a costumed magician at a tiệc nhỏ with several excited children.
An amateur magician performing

Many hobbies involve performances by the hobbyist, such as singing, acting, juggling, magic, nhảy đầm, playing a musical instrument, martial arts, and other performing arts.

Some hobbies may result in an over product. Examples of this would be woodworking, photography, moviemaking, jewelry making, software projects such as Photoshopping and home page music or đoạn Clip production, making bracelets, artistic projects such as drawing, painting, Cosplay (design, creation, and wearing a costume based on an already existing creative property), creating models out of thẻ stock or paper – called papercraft. Many of these fall under the category visual arts.

Writing is often taken up as a hobby by aspiring writers and usually appears in the size of personal blog, guest posting or người yêu thích fiction (literary art resulting in creation of written nội dung based on already existing, licensed creative property under specified terms).[17]

Reading books, ebooks, magazines, comics, or newspapers, along with browsing the mạng internet is a common hobby, and one that can trace its origins back hundreds of years. A love of literature, later in life, may be sparked by an interest in reading children's literature as a child. Many of these fall under the category literary arts.

Sports and games[edit]

Main article: Game

Stebbins[1] distinguishes an amateur sports person and a hobbyist by suggesting a hobbyist plays in less formal sports, or games that are rule bound and have no professional equivalent. While an amateur sports individual plays a sport with a professional equivalent, such as football or tennis. Amateur sport may range from informal play đồ sộ highly competitive practice, such as deck tennis or long distance trekking.

The Department for Culture, Media, and Support in England suggests that playing sports benefits physical and mental health. A positive relationship appeared between engaging in sports and improving overall health.[18]

Psychological role[edit]

During the 20th century there was extensive research into the important role that play has in human development. While most evident in childhood, play continues throughout life for many adults in the size of games, hobbies, and sport.[19] Moreover, studies of aging and society tư vấn the value of hobbies in healthy aging.[20]

Significant achievements[edit]

There have been many instances where hobbyists and amateurs have achieved significant discoveries and developments. These are a small sample.

  • Amateur astronomers have explored the skies for centuries and there is a long list of Notable amateur astronomers who have made major discoveries. Amateur astronomers Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp discovered the Comet Hale–Bopp.[21]
  • A substantial amount of early scientific research came from the amateur activities of the wealthy, such as Antoine Lavoisier's contributions đồ sộ the science of chemistry and Benjamin Franklin's investigations into electricity.[22][23]
  • Open source is a development model using the mạng internet đồ sộ cooperate on projects. It is most notable in the development of software and widely used software, which has been developed and maintained by large numbers of people, including many home-based amateurs with high level expertise.
  • While the general public was not aware of nature observation which was formally conducted as field research, during the 1930s, practitioners of the hobby went on đồ sộ become the pioneers of the conservation movement that flourished in the UK from 1965 onwards.

See also[edit]

  • Avocation
  • Entertainment
  • Community of interest
  • List of hobbies
  • Personal life
  • Play (activity)


  1. ^ a b c d e f Stebbins, Robert (2015). Serious Leisure: A Perspective for Our Time. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
  2. ^ The Phrase Finder (1996–2012). "Hobby-horse". The Phrase Finder. Gary Martin. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  3. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2012). "hobby". Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Gelber S M. Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. 3, 11–12, 23, 28.
  5. ^ Staniforth, Sarah (10 July 2019). "'It's upsetting': the autistic music fans being shut out of gigs". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November 2022.
  6. ^ Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander (May 2018). "Special interests and subjective wellbeing in autistic adults". Autism Research. 11 (5): 766–775. doi:10.1002/aur.1931. ISSN 1939-3806. PMID 29427546. S2CID 205456773.
  7. ^ "If I wasn't autistic, would my encyclopedic knowledge of dinosaurs be a problem? | Clem Bastow". the Guardian. 6 July 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  8. ^ Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Jordan, Chloe J. (1 January 2014). "Systemizing and special interests: Characterizing the continuum from neurotypical đồ sộ autism spectrum disorder". Learning and Individual Differences. 29: 98–105. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2013.10.005. ISSN 1041-6080.
  9. ^ meridian.allenpress.com https://meridian.allenpress.com/idd/article-abstract/50/5/391/7879/Understanding-Differences-in-Neurotypical-and. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  10. ^ a b Daily, Larry Z. (3 July 2018). "Towards a definition of "hobby": An empirical test of a proposed operational definition of the word hobby". Journal of Occupational Science. 25 (3): 368–382. doi:10.1080/14427591.2018.1463286. ISSN 1442-7591. S2CID 169312007.
  11. ^ Sir Matthew Hale (1676). Contemplations moral and divine. Printed by William Godbid, for William Shrowbury at the Bible in Duke-Lane, and John Leigh at the Blew Bell Fleet Street near Chancery-lane. p. 201.
  12. ^ Thomson F M L. The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750–1950 Vol 2. Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 327
  13. ^ Orwell, George (28 February 1941). "The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius". England Your England.
  14. ^ a b "The Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP)". The Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP). Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  15. ^ Gelber, Steven (1991). "A Job You Can't Lose: Work and Hobbies in the Great Depression". Journal of Social History. Oxford University Press. 24 (4): 741–766. doi:10.1353/jsh/24.4.741. JSTOR 3788855.
  16. ^ a b "History of modeling. Making models from antiquity đồ sộ the present day | Architekton | Kiev, Ukraine". Architekton. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  17. ^ "Terms of Service | FanFiction". www.fanfiction.net. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  18. ^ "Analysis of health and educational benefits of sport and culture". gov.uk. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  19. ^ Carlisle R P.. Ed, Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society Vol 1, SAGE Publications, 2009 page x
  20. ^ Pillay, Srini (20 June 2017), "How Hobbies Impact Your Head and Your Heart", Psychology Today
  21. ^ Laboratory, Charli Schuler : Jet Propulsion. "NASA – Spotlight: It's Amateur Night in Space". www.nasa.gov. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  22. ^ "Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier". Science History Institute. June 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  23. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (1990). Benjamin Franklin's Science. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674066595.

External links[edit]

  • Learn Hobbies Online
  • Hobby at Merriam-Webster
  • Gardening as a Hobby

Wikimedia Commons has truyền thông related đồ sộ Hobbies.

Wikiquote has quotations related đồ sộ hobby.

Look up hobby or pastime in Wiktionary, the không tính tiền dictionary.

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