gossip là gì

One winds on the distaff what the other spins (Both spread gossip) by Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Gossip is idle talk or rumor, especially about the personal or private affairs of others; the act is also known as dishing or tattling.[1]

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Gossip is a topic of research in evolutionary psychology,[2] which has found gossip vĩ đại be an important means for people vĩ đại monitor cooperative reputations and sánh maintain widespread indirect reciprocity.[3] Indirect reciprocity is a social interaction in which one actor helps another and is then benefited by a third tiệc ngọt. Gossip has also been identified by Robin Dunbar, an evolutionary biologist, as aiding social bonding in large groups.[4]


Look up gossip in Wiktionary, the không tính tiền dictionary.

The word is from Old English godsibb, from god and sibb, the term for the godparents of one's child or the parents of one's godchild, generally very close friends. In the 16th century, the word assumed the meaning of a person, mostly a woman, one who delights in idle talk, a newsmonger, a tattler.[5] In the early 19th century, the term was extended from the talker vĩ đại the conversation of such persons. The verb to gossip, meaning "to be a gossip", first appears in Shakespeare.

The term originates from the bedroom at the time of childbirth. Giving birth used vĩ đại be a social sự kiện exclusively attended by women. The pregnant woman's female relatives and neighbours would congregate and idly converse. Over time, gossip came vĩ đại mean talk of others.[6]


This Soviet war poster conveys the message: "Don't chatter! Gossiping borders on treason" (1941).

Gossip can:[2][non-primary source needed]

  • reinforce – or punish the lack of – morality and accountability
  • reveal passive aggression, isolating and harming others
  • build and maintain a sense of community with shared interests, information, and values[7]
  • begin a courtship that helps one find their desired mate, by counseling others
  • provide a peer-to-peer mechanism for disseminating information

Workplace gossip[edit]

Mary Gormandy White, a human resource expert, gives the following "signs" for identifying workplace gossip:

  • Animated people become silent ("Conversations stop when you enter the room")
  • People begin staring at someone
  • Workers indulge in inappropriate topics of conversation.[8]

White suggests "five tips ... [to] handle the situation with aplomb:

  1. Rise above the gossip
  2. Understand what causes or fuels the gossip
  3. Do not participate in workplace gossip.
  4. Allow for the gossip vĩ đại go away on its own
  5. If it persists, "gather facts and seek help."[8]

Peter Vajda identifies gossip as a size of workplace violence, noting that it is "essentially a size of attack." Gossip is thought by many vĩ đại "empower one person while disempowering another" (Hafen). Accordingly, many companies have formal policies in their employee handbooks against gossip.[9] Sometimes there is room for disagreement on exactly what constitutes unacceptable gossip, since workplace gossip may take the size of offhand remarks about someone's tendencies such as "He always takes a long lunch," or "Don't worry, that's just how she is."[10]

TLK Healthcare cites as examples of gossip, "tattletaling vĩ đại the quấn without intention of furthering a solution or speaking vĩ đại co-workers about something someone else has done vĩ đại upset us." Corporate gmail can be a particularly dangerous method of gossip delivery, as the medium is semi-permanent and messages are easily forwarded vĩ đại unintended recipients; accordingly, a Mass High Tech article advised employers vĩ đại instruct employees against using company gmail networks for gossip.[11] Low self-esteem and a desire vĩ đại "fit in" are frequently cited as motivations for workplace gossip.

There are five essential functions that gossip has in the workplace (according vĩ đại DiFonzo & Bordia):

  • Helps individuals learn social information about other individuals in the organization (often without even having vĩ đại meet the other individual)
  • Builds social networks of individuals by bonding co-workers together and affiliating people with each other.
  • Breaks existing bonds by ostracizing individuals within an organization.
  • enhances one's social status/power/prestige within the organization.
  • Inform individuals as vĩ đại what is considered socially acceptable behavior within the organization.

According vĩ đại Kurkland and Pelled, workplace gossip can be very serious depending upon the amount of power that the gossiper has over the recipient, which will in turn affect how the gossip is interpreted. There are four types of power that are influenced by gossip:

  • Coercive: when a gossiper tells negative information about a person, their recipient might believe that the gossiper will also spread negative information about them. This causes the gossiper's coercive power vĩ đại increase.
  • Reward: when a gossiper tells positive information about a person, their recipient might believe that the gossiper will also spread positive information about them. This causes the gossiper's reward power vĩ đại increase.
  • Expert: when a gossiper seems vĩ đại have very detailed knowledge of either the organization's values or about others in the work environment, their expert power becomes enhanced.
  • Referent: this power can either be reduced OR enhanced vĩ đại a point. When people view gossiping as a petty activity done vĩ đại waste time, a gossiperces referent power can decrease along with their reputation. When a recipient is thought of as being invited into a social circle by being a recipient, the gossiper's referent power can increase, but only vĩ đại a high point where then the recipient begins vĩ đại resent the gossiper (Kurland & Pelled).

Some negative consequences of workplace gossip may include:[12]

  • Lost productivity and wasted time,
  • Erosion of trust and morale,
  • Increased anxiety among employees as rumors circulate without any clear information as vĩ đại what is fact and what isn't,
  • Growing divisiveness among employees as people "take sides",
  • Hurt feelings and reputations,
  • Jeopardized chances for the gossipers' advancement as they are perceived as unprofessional, and
  • Attrition as good employees leave the company due vĩ đại the unhealthy work atmosphere.

Turner and Weed theorize that among the three main types of responders vĩ đại workplace conflict are attackers who cannot keep their feelings vĩ đại themselves and express their feelings by attacking whatever they can. Attackers are further divided into up-front attackers and behind-the-back attackers. Turner and Weed note that the latter "are difficult vĩ đại handle because the target person is not sure of the source of any criticism, nor even always sure that there is criticism."[13]

It is possible however, that there may be illegal, unethical, or disobedient behavior happening at the workplace and this may be a case where reporting the behavior may be viewed as gossip. It is then left up vĩ đại the authority in charge vĩ đại fully investigate the matter and not simply look past the report and assume it vĩ đại be workplace gossip.

Informal networks through which communication occurs in an organization are sometimes called the grapevine. In a study done by Harcourt, Richerson, and Wattier, it was found that middle managers in several different organizations believed that gathering information from the grapevine was a much better way of learning information kêu ca through formal communication with their subordinates (Harcourt, Richerson & Wattier).

Various views[edit]

Some see gossip as trivial, hurtful and socially and/or intellectually unproductive. Some people view gossip as a lighthearted way of spreading information. A feminist definition of gossip presents it as "a way of talking between women, intimate in style, personal and domestic in scope and setting, a female cultural sự kiện which springs from and perpetuates the restrictions of the female role, but also gives the comfort of validation." (Jones, 1990:243)

In early modern England[edit]

In Early Modern England the word "gossip" referred vĩ đại companions in childbirth, not limited vĩ đại the midwife. It also became a term for women-friends generally, with no necessary derogatory connotations. (OED n. definition 2. a. "A familiar acquaintance, friend, chum", supported by references from 1361 vĩ đại 1873). It commonly referred vĩ đại an informal local sorority or social group, who could enforce socially acceptable behaviour through private censure or through public rituals, such as "rough music", the cucking stool and the skimmington ride.

In Thomas Harman's Caveat for Common Cursitors 1566 a 'walking mort' relates how she was forced vĩ đại agree vĩ đại meet a man in his barn, but informed his wife. The wife arrived with her "five furious, sturdy, muffled gossips" who catch the errant husband with "his hosen [trousers] about his legs" and give him a sound beating. The story clearly functions as a morality tale in which the gossips uphold the social order.[14]

In Sir Herbert Maxwell Bart's The Chevalier of the Splendid Crest [1900] at the over of chapter three the king is noted as referring vĩ đại his loyal knight "Sir Thomas de Roos" in kindly terms as "my old gossip". Whilst a historical novel of that time the reference implies a continued use of the term "Gossip" as a childhood friend as late as 1900.

In Judaism[edit]

Judaism considers gossip spoken without a constructive purpose (known in Hebrew as "evil tongue", lashon hara) vĩ đại be a sin. Speaking negatively about people, even if retelling true facts, counts as sinful, as it demeans the dignity of man — both the speaker and the subject of the gossip. According vĩ đại Proverbs 18:8: "The words of a gossip are lượt thích choice morsels: they go down vĩ đại a man's innermost parts."

In Christianity[edit]

The Christian perspective on gossip is typically based on modern cultural assumptions of the phenomenon, especially the assumption that generally speaking, gossip is negative speech.[15][16][17] However, due vĩ đại the complexity of the phenomenon, biblical scholars have more precisely identified the size and function of gossip, even identifying a socially positive role for the social process as it is described in the New Testament.[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] Of course, this does not mean that there are not numerous texts in the New Testament that see gossip as dangerous negative speech.

Xem thêm: typo là gì

Thus, for example, the Epistle vĩ đại the Romans associates gossips ("backbiters") with a list of sins including sexual immorality and with murder:

28: And even as they did not lượt thích vĩ đại retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over vĩ đại a reprobate mind, vĩ đại tự those things which are not convenient;
29: Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
30: Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient vĩ đại parents,
31: Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:
32: Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only tự the same, but have pleasure in them that tự them. (Romans 1:28-32)

According vĩ đại Matthew 18, Jesus also taught that conflict resolution among church members ought vĩ đại begin with the aggrieved tiệc ngọt attempting vĩ đại resolve their dispute with the offending tiệc ngọt alone. Only if this did not work would the process escalate vĩ đại the next step, in which another church thành viên would become involved. After that if the person at fault still would not "hear," the matter was vĩ đại be fully investigated by the church elders, and if not resolved vĩ đại be then exposed publicly.

Based on texts lượt thích these portraying gossip negatively, many Christian authors generalize on the phenomenon. So, in order vĩ đại gossip, writes Phil Fox Rose, we "must harden our heart towards the 'out' person. We draw a line between ourselves and them; define them as being outside the rules of Christian charity... We create a gap between ourselves and God's Love." As we harden our heart towards more people and groups, he continues, "this negativity and feeling of separateness will grow and permeate our world, and we'll find it more difficult vĩ đại access God's love in any aspect of our lives."[26]

The New Testament is also in favor of group accountability (Ephesians 5:11; 1st Tim 5:20; James 5:16; Gal 6:1-2; 1 Cor 12:26), which may be associated with gossip.

In Islam[edit]

Islam considers backbiting the equivalent of eating the flesh of one's dead brother. According vĩ đại Muslims, backbiting harms its victims without offering them any chance of defense, just as dead people cannot defend against their flesh being eaten. Muslims are expected vĩ đại treat others lượt thích brothers (regardless of their beliefs, skin color, gender, or ethnic origin), deriving from Islam's concept of brotherhood amongst its believers.

In the Bahá’í Faith[edit]

The Bahá’í Faith aims vĩ đại promote the unity of humankind and considers backbiting vĩ đại be the "worst human quality and the most great sin..."[27] Therefore, even murder would be considered less reprobate kêu ca backbiting. Bahá’u’lláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Bahá’í Faith stated that, "Backbiting quencheth the light of the heart, and extinguisheth the life of the soul."[28] More kêu ca affecting one's physical condition, Bahá’ís understands that when someone gossips and finds faults in others it hampers the spiritual development of those involved while also creating disunity among individuals, communities, and society at large.

In psychology[edit]

Evolutionary view[edit]

The Friendly Gossips (1901) by Eugene de Blaas

From Robin Dunbar's evolutionary theories, gossip originated vĩ đại help bond the groups that were constantly growing in size. To survive, individuals need alliances; but as these alliances grew larger, it was difficult if not impossible vĩ đại physically connect with everyone. Conversation and language were able vĩ đại bridge this gap. Gossip became a social interaction that helped the group gain information about other individuals without personally speaking vĩ đại them.  

It enabled people vĩ đại keep up with what was going on in their social network. It also creates a bond between the teller and the hearer, as they share information of mutual interest and spend time together. It also helps the hearer learn about another individual's behavior and helps them have a more effective approach vĩ đại their relationship. Dunbar (2004) found that 65% of conversations consist of social topics.[29]

Dunbar (1994) argues that gossip is the equivalent of social grooming often observed in other primate species.[30] Anthropological investigations indicate that gossip is a cross-cultural phenomenon, providing evidence for evolutionary accounts of gossip.[31][32][33]

There is very little evidence vĩ đại suggest meaningful sex differences in the proportion of conversational time spent gossiping, and when there is a difference, women are only very slightly more likely vĩ đại gossip compared with men.[30][33][34] Further tư vấn for the evolutionary significance of gossip comes from a recent study published in the peer-reviewed journal, Science Anderson and colleagues (2011) found that faces paired with negative social information dominate visual consciousness vĩ đại a greater extent kêu ca positive and neutral social information during a binocular rivalry task.

Binocular rivalry occurs when two different stimuli are presented vĩ đại each eye simultaneously and the two percepts compete for dominance in visual consciousness. While this occurs, an individual will consciously perceive one of the percepts while the other is suppressed. After a time, the other percept will become dominant and an individual will become aware of the second percept. Finally, the two percepts will alternate back and forth in terms of visual awareness.

The study by Anderson and colleagues (2011) indicates that higher order cognitive processes, lượt thích evaluative information processing, can influence early visual processing. That only negative social information differentially affected the dominance of the faces during the task alludes vĩ đại the unique importance of knowing information about an individual that should be avoided.[35] Since the positive social information did not produce greater perceptual dominance of the matched face indicates that negative information about an individual may be more salient vĩ đại our behavior kêu ca positive.[36]

Gossip also gives information about social norms and guidelines for behavior, usually commenting on how appropriate a behavior was, and the mere act of repeating it signifies its importance. In this sense, gossip is effective regardless of whether it is positive or negative[37] Some theorists have proposed that gossip is actually a pro-social behavior intended vĩ đại allow an individual vĩ đại correct their socially prohibitive behavior without direct confrontation of the individual. By gossiping about an individual's acts, other individuals can subtly indicate that said acts are inappropriate and allow the individual vĩ đại correct their behavior (Schoeman 1994).

Perception of those who gossip[edit]

Individuals who are perceived vĩ đại engage in gossiping regularly are seen as having less social power and being less liked.[citation needed] The type of gossip being exchanged also affects likeability, whereby those who engage in negative gossip are less liked kêu ca those who engage in positive gossip.[38] In a study done by Turner and colleagues (2003), having a prior relationship with a gossiper was not found vĩ đại protect the gossiper from less favorable personality-ratings after gossip was exchanged. In the study, pairs of individuals were brought into a research lab vĩ đại participate. Either the two individuals were friends prior vĩ đại the study or they were strangers scheduled vĩ đại participate at the same time. One of the individuals was a confederate of the study, and they engaged in gossiping about the research assistant after she left the room. The gossip exchanged was either positive or negative. Regardless of gossip type (positive versus negative) or relationship type (friend versus stranger) the gossipers were rated as less trustworthy after sharing the gossip.[39]

Walter Block has suggested that while gossip and blackmail both involve the disclosure of unflattering information, the blackmailer is arguably ethically superior vĩ đại the gossip.[40] Block writes: "In a sense, the gossip is much worse kêu ca the blackmailer, for the blackmailer has given the blackmailed a chance vĩ đại silence him. The gossip exposes the secret without warning." The victim of a blackmailer is thus offered choices denied vĩ đại the subject of gossip], such as deciding if the exposure of his or her secret is worth the cost the blackmailer demands. Moreover, in refusing a blackmailer's offer one is in no worse a position kêu ca with the gossip. Adds Block, "It is indeed difficult, then, vĩ đại tài khoản for the vilification suffered by the blackmailer, at least compared vĩ đại the gossip, who is usually dismissed with slight contempt and smugness."

Contemporary critiques of gossip may concentrate on or become subsumed in the discussion of social truyền thông media such as Facebook.[41]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Gossip - Define Gossip at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com.
  2. ^ a b McAndrew, Frank T. (October 2008). "The Science of Gossip: Why we can't stop ourselves". Scientific American.
  3. ^ Sommerfeld, RD; Krambeck, HJ; Semmann, D; Milinski, M (2007). "Gossip as an alternative for direct observation in games of indirect reciprocity". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104 (44): 17435–40. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10417435S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704598104. PMC 2077274. PMID 17947384.
  4. ^ Dunbar, RI (2004). "Gossip in evolutionary perspective". Review of General Psychology. 8 (2): 100–110. CiteSeerX doi:10.1037/1089-2680.8.2.100. S2CID 51785001. Archived from the original on 2013-07-28. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
  5. ^ OED
  6. ^ "If Walls Could Talk: The History of the trang chủ (Bedroom), Lucy Worsley, BBC"
  7. ^ Abercrombie, Nicholas (2004). Sociology: A Short Introduction. Short Introductions. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 122–152. ISBN 978-0745625416. [...] I described a study of the role of gossip in controlling the lives of young people in a London Punjabi community. Gossip is effectively a device for the assertion and maintenance of the background assumptions about the way that a community lives its life.
  8. ^ a b Jeanne Grunert, "When Gossip Strikes," OfficePro, January/February 2010, pp. 16-18, at 17, found at IAAP trang web.[dead link] Accessed March 9, 2010.
  9. ^ New Jersey Hearsay Evidence Archived 2008-01-18 at the Wayback Machine, Human Resource Blog.
  10. ^ The Culture Shock Archived 2007-11-27 at the Wayback Machine, Tami Kyle, TLK Connections, Summer 2005.
  11. ^ Companies must spell out employee e-mail policies, Warren E. Agin, Swiggart & Agin, LLC, Mass High Tech, November 18, 1996.
  12. ^ Workplace Gossip Archived 2007-11-27 at the Wayback Machine, Kit Hennessy, LPC, CEAP.
  13. ^ Conflict in organizations: Practical solutions any manager can use; Turner, Stephen Phường. (University of South Florida); Weed, Frank; 1983.
  14. ^ Bernard Capp, When Gossips Meet: Women, Family and Neighbourhood in Early Modern England, Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-925598-9
  15. ^ Meng, Margaret (2008). "Gossip: Killing Us Softly". Homiletic and Pastoral Review. 109: 26–31.
  16. ^ Sedler, M.D. (2001). Stop the Runaway Conversation: Take Control Over Gossip and Criticism. Grand Rapids: Chosen.
  17. ^ Mitchell, Mathew C. (2013). Resisting Gossip: Winning the War of the Wagging Tongue. Fort Washington: CLC Publications.
  18. ^ Daniels, John W. (2013). Gossiping Jesus: The Oral Processing of Jesus in John's Gospel. Eugene: Pickwick Publications.
  19. ^ Daniels, John W. (2012). "Gossip in the New Testament." Biblical Theology Bulletin 42/4. pp. 204-213.
  20. ^ Botha, Pieter J. J. (1998). "Paul and Gossip: A Social Mechanism in Early Christian Communities". Neotestamentica. 32: 267–288.
  21. ^ Botha, Pieter J. J. (1993). "The Social Dynamics of the Early Transmission of the Jesus Tradition". Neotestamentica. 27: 205–231.
  22. ^ Kartzow, Marianne B (2005). "Female Gossipers and their Reputation in the Pastoral Epistles". Neotestamentica. 39: 255–271.
  23. ^ Kartzow, Marianne B. (2009). Gossip and Gender: Othering of Speech in the Pastoral Epistles. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
  24. ^ Kartzow, Marianne B. (2010) "Resurrection as Gossip: Representations of Women in Resurrection Stories of the Gospels." Lectio Difficilior 1.
  25. ^ Rohrbaugh, Richard L. (2007). "Gossip in the New Testament." The New Testament in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Eugene: Cascade Books.
  26. ^ Phil Fox Rose, "Gossip hardens our hearts", Patheos. Accessed February 23, 2013.
  27. ^ "Backbiting". Bahai Quotes.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  28. ^ "Lights of Guidance/Backbiting, Criticism, Faultfinding, Gossip, Lies, Slander Etc. - Bahaiworks, a library of works about the Bahá'í Faith". Bahai.works.
  29. ^ Dunbar, R (2004). "Gossip in evolutionary perspective". Review of General Psychology. 8 (2): 100–110. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.8.2.100. S2CID 51785001.
  30. ^ a b Dunbar, R.I.M. (1994). Grooming, gossip, and the evolution of language. London: Faver & Faber.
  31. ^ Besnier, N (1989). "Information withholding as a manipulative and collusive strategy in Nukulaelae gossip". Language in Society. 18 (3): 315–341. doi:10.1017/s0047404500013634. S2CID 145505351.
  32. ^ Gluckman, M (1963). "Gossip and scandal". Current Anthropology. 4: 307–316. doi:10.1086/200378. S2CID 162361888.
  33. ^ a b Haviland, J.B. (1977). "Gossip as competition in Zinacantan". Journal of Communication. 27: 186–191. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1977.tb01816.x.
  34. ^ Foster, E.K. (2004). "Research on gossip: Taxonomy, methods, and future directions". Review of General Psychology. 8 (2): 78–99. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.8.2.78. S2CID 33099827.
  35. ^ Hedrih, Vladimir (2023-01-19). "New study on intrasexual competition sheds light on women's most common insults toward female rivals". PsyPost. Retrieved 2023-01-20.
  36. ^ Anderson, E.; Siegel, E.H.; Bliss-Moreau, E.; Barrett, L.F. (2011). "The visual impact of gossip". Science Magazine. 332 (6036): 1446–1448. Bibcode:2011Sci...332.1446A. doi:10.1126/science.1201574. PMC 3141574. PMID 21596956.
  37. ^ Baumeister, R. F.; Zhang, L.; Vohs, K. D. (2004). "Gossip as cultural learning". Review of General Psychology. 8 (2): 111–121. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.8.2.111. S2CID 19009549.
  38. ^ Farley, S (2011). "Is gossip power? The inverse relationship between gossip, power, and likability". European Journal of Social Psychology. 41 (5): 574–579. doi:10.1002/ejsp.821. hdl:11603/4030.
  39. ^ Turner, M. M.; Mazur, M.A.; Wendel, N.; Winslow, R. (2003). "Relationship ruin or social glue? The joint effect of relationship type and gossip valence on liking, trust, and expertise". Communication Monographs. 70: 129–141. doi:10.1080/0363775032000133782. S2CID 144861229.
  40. ^ Block, Walter ([1976], 1991, 2008). Defending the Undefendable: The Pimp, Prostitute, Scab, Slumlord, Libeler, Moneylender, and Other Scapegoats in the Rogue's Gallery of American Society Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute, ISBN 978-1-933550-17-6, pp. 42-43, full text online
  41. ^ Cuonzo, Margaret A. (2010). "15: Gossip and the evolution of facebook". In Wittkower, D. E. (ed.). Facebook and Philosophy: What's on Your Mind?. Popular culture and philosophy series, edited by George A. Reisch. Vol. 50. Chicago: Open Court Publishing. p. 173ff. ISBN 9780812696752. Retrieved 23 Apr 2019.


Further reading[edit]

  • Niko Besnier, 2009: Gossip and the Everyday Production of Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3338-1
  • Niko Besnier, 1996: Gossip. In Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds. Vol. 2, pp. 544–547. New York: Henry Holt.
  • Besnier, Niko (1994). "The Truth and Other Irrelevant Aspects of Nukulaelae Gossip". Pacific Studies. 17 (3): 1–39.
  • Besnier, Niko (1989). "Information Withholding as a Manipulative and Collusive Strategy in Nukulaelae Gossip". Language in Society. 18 (3): 315–341. doi:10.1017/s0047404500013634. S2CID 145505351.
  • Birchall, Clare (2006). Knowledge goes pop from conspiracy theory vĩ đại gossip. Oxford New York: Berg. ISBN 9781845201432. Preview.
  • DiFonzo, Nicholas & Prashant Bordia. "Rumor, Gossip, & Urban Legend." Diogenes Vol. 54 (Feb 2007) pg 19-35.
  • Ellickson, Robert C. (1991). Order without law: how neighbors settle disputes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-64168-6.
  • Feeley, Kathleen A. and Frost, Jennifer (eds.) When Private Talk Goes Public: Gossip in American History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, năm trước.
  • Robert F. Goodman and Aaron Ben-Zeev, editors: Good Gossip. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1993. ISBN 0-7006-0669-6
  • Hafen, Susan. "Organizational Gossip: A Revolving Door of Regulation & Resistance." The Southern Communication Journal Vol. 69, No. 3 (Spring 2004) pg 223
  • Harcourt, Jules, Virginia Richerson, and Mark J Wattier. "A National Study of Middle Managers' Assessment of Organizational Communication Quality." Journal of Business Communication Vol. 28, No. 4 (Fall 1991) pg 348-365
  • Jones, Deborah, 1990: 'Gossip: notes on women's oral culture'. In: Cameron, Deborah. (editor) The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader. London/New York: Routledge, 1990, pp. 242–250. ISBN 0-415-04259-3. Cited online in Rash, 1996.
  • Kenny, Robert Wade, 2014: Gossip. In Encyclopedia of Lying and Deception. Timothy R. Levine, ed. Vol. 1, pp. 410–414. Los Angeles: Sage Press.
  • Kurland, Nancy B. & Lisa Hope Pelled. "Passing the Word: Toward a Model of Gossip & Power in the Workplace." The Academy of Management Review Vol. 25, No. 2 (April 2000) pg 428-438
  • Phillips, Susan (2010), Transforming Talk: The Problem with Gossip in Late Medieval England, Penn State Press, ISBN 9780271047393
  • Rash, Felicity (1996). "Rauhe Männer - Zarte Frauen: Linguistic and Stylistic Aspects of Gender Stereotyping in German Advertising Texts 1949-1959" (1). Web Journal of Modern Language Linguistics. Retrieved August 8, 2006.
  • Spacks, Patricia Ann Meyer (1985), Gossip, New York: Knopf, ISBN 978-0-394-54024-5

External links[edit]

Look up gossip in Wiktionary, the không tính tiền dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has truyền thông media related vĩ đại Gossip.

Wikiquote has quotations related vĩ đại Gossip.

Xem thêm: next là gì

  • "Gossip" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 12 (11th ed.). 1911.
  • Ronald de Sousa (U Toronto) on Gossip Archived 2010-07-02 at the Wayback Machine
  • "Go Ahead. Gossip May Be Virtuous" New York Times article by Patricia Cohen 2002-08-10 (requires registration)
  • Emrys Westacott (Alfred U) The Ethics of Gossiping
  • Robin Dunbar, Coevolution of neocortical size, group size and language in humans (pre-publication version) "Analysis of a sample of human conversations shows that about 60% of time is spent gossiping about relationships and personal experiences."
  • Benjamin Brown, From Principles vĩ đại Rules and from Musar vĩ đại Halakhah - The Hafetz Hayim's Rulings on Libel and Gossip.