funding là gì

From Wikipedia, the không tính tiền encyclopedia

Funding is the act of providing resources to lớn finance a need, program, or project. While this is usually in the sườn of money, it can also take the sườn of effort or time from an organization or company. Generally, this word is used when a firm uses its internal reserves to lớn satisfy its necessity for cash, while the term financing is used when the firm acquires capital from external sources.[citation needed]

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Sources of funding include credit, venture capital, donations, grants, savings, subsidies, and taxes. Funding methods such as donations, subsidies, and grants that have no direct requirement for return of investment are described as "soft funding" or "crowdfunding". Funding that facilitates the exchange of equity ownership in a company for capital investment via an online funding portal per the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (alternately, the "JOBS Act of 2012") (U.S.) is known as equity crowdfunding.

Funds can be allocated for either short-term or long-term purposes.


The flow of funds from lender to lớn borrower.
[1] Types of financing/funding

In economics funds are injected into the market as capital by lenders and taken as loans by borrowers. There are two ways in which the capital can over up at the borrower. The lender can lend the capital to lớn a financial intermediary against interest. These financial intermediaries then reinvest the money against a higher rate. The use of financial intermediaries to lớn finance operations is called indirect finance. A lender can also go to lớn the financial markets to lớn directly lend to lớn a borrower. This method is called direct finance.[2]

Purpose of Funding[edit]

Research funding[edit]

Research funding is funding used for research-related purposes. It is most often used to lớn describe funding in the fields of technology or social science. The allocation of funds are usually granted based on a per project, department, or institute basis stemming from scope of the research or project. Research funding can be split into commercial and non-commercial allocations. Research and development departments of a corporation normally provide commercial research funding. Whereas, non-commercial research funding is obtained from charities, research councils, or government agencies.[3] Organizations that require such funding normally have to lớn go through competitive selections. Only those that have the most potential would be chosen. Funding is vital in ensuring the sustainability of certain projects.

Launch a business[edit]

Entrepreneurs with a business concept would want to lớn accumulate all the necessary resources including capital to lớn venture into a market. Funding is part of the process, as some businesses would require large start-up sums that individuals would not have.[4] These start-up funds are essential to lớn kick-start a business idea, without it, entrepreneurs would not have the ability to lớn carry out their concepts in the business world.

Uses on investment[edit]

Fund management companies gather pools of money from many investors and use them to lớn purchase securities. These funds are managed by professional investment managers, which may generate higher returns with reduced risks by asset diversification.[5] The size of these funds could be as little as a few millions or as much as multi billions. The purpose of these funding activities is mainly aiming to lớn pursue individual or organization profits.

Methods of Funding[edit]

Government Grants[edit]

Government could allocate funds itself or through government agencies to lớn projects that benefit the public through a selection process to lớn students or researchers and even organizations. At least two external peer-reviewers and an internal research award committee review each application. The research awards committee would meet some time to lớn discuss shortlisted applications. A further shortlist and ranking is made. Projects are funded and applicants are informed.[6] Econometric evidence shows public grants for firms can create additionality in jobs, sales, value added, innovation and capital. For example, this was shown to lớn be the case for large R&D grants,[7] as well as smaller public grants for the tourism firms[8] or small and medium sized firms in general.[9]

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Crowdfunding exists in mainly two types, reward-based crowdfunding and equity-based crowdfunding. In the former, small firms could pre-sell a product or service to lớn start a business whereas in the latter, backers buy a certain amount of shares of a firm in exchange of money.[10] As for reward-based crowdfunding, project creators would mix a funding target and deadline. Anyone who is interested can pledge on the projects. Projects must reach its targeted amount in order for it to lớn be carried out. Once the projects ended with enough funds, projects creators would have to lớn make sure that they fulfill their promises by the intended timeline and delivery their products or services.[11]

Raise from investors[edit]

To raise capital, you require funds from investors who are interested in the investments. You have to lớn present those investors with high-return projects. By displaying high-level potentials of the projects, investors would be more attracted to lớn put their money into those projects. After a certain amount of time, usually in a year's time, rewards of the investment will be shared with investors. This makes investors happy and they may continue to lớn invest further.[12] If returns bởi not meet the intended level, this could reduce the willingness of investors to lớn invest their money into the funds. Hence, the amounts of financial incentives are highly weighted determinants to lớn ensure the funding remains at a desirable level. Venture Capital (VC) is a subdivision of Private Equity wherein external investors fund small-scale startups that have high growth potential in the long run rẩy. Investors receive a portion of the company’s equity in return for the money invested by them. The amount of money that a Venture capital firm can raise is predominantly built on the Principal-agent relationship between the Limited Partners and the Venture Capital Firm.[13]

Self-Organized Funding Allocation[edit]

Self-organized funding allocation (SOFA) is a method of distributing funding for scientific research. In this system, each researcher is allocated an equal amount of funding, and is required to lớn anonymously allocate a fraction of their funds to lớn the research of others. Proponents of SOFA argue that it would result in similar distribution of funding as the present grant system, but with less overhead.[14] In năm 2016, a test pilot of SOFA began in the Netherlands.[15]

Securing loans[edit]

A company or an individual may secure a loan to lớn get access to lớn capital. Often borrowers must use a secured loan where assets are pledged as collateral. If the borrower defaults, ownership of the collateral reverts to lớn the lender. Both tangible and intangible assets can be used to lớn secure loans.[16] The use of IP as collateral in IP-backed finance transactions is the subject of a report series at the World Intellectual Property Organization.[17]

Withdrawal of funding[edit]


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to lớn it. (October 2018)

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Withdrawal of funding, or defunding, occurs when funding previously given to lớn an organisation ceases, especially in relation to lớn Governmental funding.[18] Defunding could be as a result of a disagreement or failure to lớn meet mix objectives. An example that explains the withdrawal of funding in this case is that of President Trump's decision to lớn stop funding the World Health Organization (WHO) over alleged Coronavirus mismanagement.[19]

See also[edit]

Look up funding in Wiktionary, the không tính tiền dictionary.

  • Foundation (non-profit)
  • Investment
    • Investment fund
  • Crowdfunding
  • Peer-to-peer lending
  • Research funding
  • Seed money
  • Micro finance
  • Mutual fund
  • Trust Fund
  • Equity fund
  • Intangible asset finance


  1. ^ Kaschny, Martin (2018). Innovation and Transformation. Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-319-78524-0.
  2. ^ Mishkin, Frederic (2012). The Economics of Money, Banking and Financial Markets (Global, Tenth ed.). Pearson Education Limited. p. 68. ISBN 978-0273765738.
  3. ^ Imperial College London(2014) Types of research funding [Online] Available at: (Accessed:15 October 2014)
  4. ^ "Set up a business". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2023-08-24.
  5. ^ "Mutual Funds |". Retrieved 2023-08-24.
  6. ^ Stroke Association(2009) Research funding process [Online] Available at: (Accessed: 21 October 2014)
  7. ^ Howell, Sabrina T. (2017). "Financing Innovation: Evidence from R&D Grants". American Economic Review. 107 (4): 1136–1164. doi:10.1257/aer.20150808.
  8. ^ Srhoj, Stjepan; Vitezić, Vanja; Walde, Janette (2021). "Do small public grants boost tourism firms' performance?". Tourism Economics. 28 (6): 1435–1452. doi:10.1177/1354816621994436.
  9. ^ Dvouletý, Ondřej; Srhoj, Stjepan; Pantea, Smaranda (2020). "Public SME grants and firm performance in European Union: A systematic review of empirical evidence". Small Business Economics. 57: 243–263. doi:10.1007/s11187-019-00306-x.
  10. ^ Clifford, C.(2014) Crowdfunding Generates More Than $60,000 an Hour (Infographic) [Online] Available at: (Accessed: 22 October 2014)
  11. ^ Kickstarter, Inc.(2010) "Seven things to lớn know about Kickstarter" [Online] Available at: (Accessed: 23 October 2014)
  12. ^ Raise Capital(2011) "Business talk - How to lớn raise capital for a hedge fund" [Online] Available at: (Accessed: 24 October 2014)
  13. ^ Raza, M. Tanzeem; Natarajan, P.. (January 2023). "Factors Driving Venture Capital Investments in India". Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies. 9 (1): 62–79. doi:10.1177/23939575221139944. ISSN 2393-9575.
  14. ^ Bollen, Johan (8 August 2018). "Who would you share your funding with?". Nature. 560 (7717): 143. Bibcode:2018Natur.560..143B. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-05887-3. PMID 30089925.
  15. ^ Coelho, Andre. "NETHERLANDS: A radical new way bởi fund science | BIEN". Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  16. ^ Security interests in intellectual property. Toshiyuki Kono. Singapore. 2017. ISBN 978-981-10-5415-0. OCLC 1001337977.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ "Launch of new WIPO report series on unlocking IP-Backed Finance at Singapore's IP Week, 26 August 2021 – Sharing the Singapore Country Report". Retrieved 2021-12-24.
  18. ^ "The definition of defund". Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  19. ^ Cohen, Joshua. "Trump's Decision To Defund WHO For Coronavirus Response: Throwing The Baby Out With The Bathwater". Forbes. Retrieved 2021-07-08.