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In psychology, frustration is a common emotional response to tướng opposition, related to tướng anger, annoyance and disappointment. Frustration arises from the perceived resistance to tướng the fulfillment of an individual's will or goal and is likely to tướng increase when a will or goal is denied or blocked. There are two types of frustration: internal and external. Internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal goals, desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. Conflict, such as when one has competing goals that interfere with one another, can also be an internal source of frustration or annoyance and can create cognitive dissonance. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside an individual's control, such as a physical roadblock, a difficult task, or the perception of wasting time. There are multiple ways individuals cope with frustration such as passive–aggressive behavior, anger, or violence, although frustration may also propel positive processes via enhanced effort and strive. This broad range of potential outcomes makes it difficult to tướng identify the original cause(s) of frustration, as the responses may be indirect. However, a more direct and common response is a propensity towards aggression.
Frustration originates from feelings of uncertainty and insecurity which stems from a sense of inability to tướng fulfill needs. If the needs of an individual are blocked, uneasiness and frustration are more likely to tướng occur. When these needs are constantly ignored or unsatisfied, anger, depression, loss of self-confidence, annoyance, aggression, and sometimes violence are likely to tướng follow. Needs can be blocked two different ways; internally and externally. Internal blocking happens within an individual's mind, either through lack of ability, confidence, conflicting goals and desires, and/or fears. External blocking happens to tướng an individual outside their control such as physical roadblocks, difficult tasks, or perceived waste of time, especially when those roadblocks or challenges were unexpected, or if the individual expected the goal to tướng be easy to tướng accomplish. Frustration is usually less when an individual expected, or knew beforehand, that the goal would be "challenging."
Some people are predisposed towards feelings of frustration, indexed in terms of temperament (frustration) in adolescence, and neuroticism in adulthood. Temperamental frustration is associated with perceptual alterations including changes in perceived relationship affection.
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Frustration can be classed as a mental health problem–response behavior and can have a number of effects, depending on the mental health of the individual. In positive cases, this frustration will build until a level that is too great for the individual to tướng contain or allow to tướng continue, and thus produce action directed at solving the inherent problem in a disposition that does not cause social or physical harm. In negative cases, however, the individual may perceive the source of frustration to tướng be outside their control, and thus the frustration will continue to tướng build, leading eventually to tướng further problematic behavior (e.g. violent reaction against perceived oppressors or enemies).
Stubborn refusal to tướng respond to tướng new conditions affecting the goal, such as removal or modification of the barrier, sometimes occurs. As pointed out by J.A.C. Brown, severe punishment may cause individuals to tướng continue non-adaptive behavior blindly: "Either it may have an effect opposite to tướng that of reward and as such, discourage the repetition of the act, or, by functioning as a frustrating agent, it may lead to tướng fixation and the other symptoms of frustration as well. It follows that punishment is a dangerous tool, since it often has effects which are entirely the opposite of those desired".
Frustration tolerance is one's ability to tướng resist becoming frustrated when facing difficult tasks. Having a low frustration tolerance is related to tướng trait anger and a higher level of frustration tolerance is related to tướng lower levels of anger and longer persistence on difficult tasks. For example, a child with a high frustration tolerance may be able to tướng khuyến mãi with repeated challenges and failures without experiencing significant frustration. The child with a low frustration tolerance can be quick to tướng experience frustration when asked to tướng perform tasks of moderate difficulty.
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- Frustration–aggression hypothesis
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