cottage là gì

South Savonia is one of the largest summer cottage regions in Finland, with more kêu ca 50,000 holiday homes.[1] The picture was taken in Mäntyharju.

A cottage, during England's feudal period, was the holding by a cottager (known as a cotter or bordar) of a small house with enough garden đồ sộ feed a family and in return for the cottage, the cottager had đồ sộ provide some size of service đồ sộ the manorial lord.[2] However, in time cottage just became the general term for a small house. In modern usage, a cottage is usually a modest, often cosy dwelling, typically in a rural or semi-rural location and not necessarily in England. The cottage orné, often quite large and grand residences built by the nobility, dates back đồ sộ a movement of "rustic" stylised cottages of the late 18th and early 19th century during the Romantic movement.

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In British English the term now denotes a small dwelling of traditional build, although it can also be applied đồ sộ modern construction designed đồ sộ resemble traditional houses ("mock cottages"). Cottages may be detached houses, or terraced, such as those built đồ sộ house workers in mining villages. The tied accommodation provided đồ sộ farm workers was usually a cottage, see cottage garden. In England the term holiday cottage now denotes a specialised size of residential let property, attracting various tax benefits đồ sộ the owner.

The holiday cottage exists in many cultures under different names. In American English, "cottage" is one term for such holiday homes, although they may also be called a "cabin", "chalet", or even "camp". In nước Australia, the term "cabin" is common, cottage usually referring đồ sộ a smaller pre-modern period dwelling. In certain countries (e.g. Nordics, Baltics, and Russia) the term "cottage" has local synonyms: In Finnish mökki, in Estonian suvila, in Latvian vasarnīca, in Livonian sõvvõkuodā, in Swedish stuga, in Norwegian hytte (from the German word Hütte), in Czech or Slovak chata or chalupa, in Russian дача (dacha).[3]

In places such as Canada, "cottage" carries no connotations of size (compare with vicarage or hermitage).


The word cottage (Medieval Latin cotagium) derives from Old English cot, cote "hut" and Old French cot "hut, cottage", from Old Norse kot "hut" and related đồ sộ Middle Low German kotten (cottage, hut). Examples of this may be found in 15th century manor court rolls.[citation needed] The house of the cottage bore the Latin name: "domus",[4] while the barn of the cottage was termed "grangia".



A typical cottage in Devon, with walls built of cob and a thatched roof.

The word originally referred đồ sộ a humble rural detached dwelling of a cotter, a semi-independent resident of a manor who had certain residential rights from the lord of the manor, and who in the social hierarchy was a grade above the slave (mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086), who had no right of tenure and worked full-time đồ sộ the orders of the lord. In the Domesday Book, they were referred đồ sộ as Coterelli.[5] The cottage had a small amount of surrounding agricultural land, perhaps 2 or three acres, from which the resident gained his livelihood and sustenance. It was defined by its function of housing a cotter, rather kêu ca by its size, which varied, but it was certainly small and cheaply built and purely functional, with no non-essential architectural flourishes. It would have been built from the cheapest locally available materials and in the local style, thus in wheat-growing areas, it would be roofed in thatch, and in slate-rich locations, such as Cornwall, slates would be used for roofing. In stone-rich areas, its walls would be built of rubble stone, and in other areas, such as Devon, was commonly built from cob.[6]

Industrial Revolution[edit]

19th century coal miners' cottages rebuilt at the Beamish Museum.

In England from about the 18th century onwards, the development of industry led đồ sộ the development of weavers' cottages and miners' cottages.[7] Friedrich Engels cites 'Cottages' as a poor quality dwelling in his 1845 work The Condition of the Working Class in England.

Enclosures Act[edit]

Over the years various English Acts of Parliament removed the right of the cottager đồ sộ hold land. According đồ sộ John Lawrence Hammond and Barbara Hammond in their book The Village Labourer, before the Enclosures Act the cottager was a farm labourer with land, and after the Enclosures Act the cottager was a farm labourer without land.[8]

Legal definition[edit]

In the law of England and Wales the definition of a cottage is "a small house or habitation without land".[5] However, originally under an Elizabethan statute, the cottage had đồ sộ be built with at least 4 acres (0.02 km2; 0.01 sq mi) of land.[5]


The Ugly House (Welsh: Tŷ Hyll) near Betws-Y-Coed, a famous example of a tŷ unnos.

The Welsh Tŷ unnos or "house in a night", was built by squatters on a plot of land defined by the throw of an axe from each corner of the property. In Welsh a cottage is known as bwthyn and its inhabitant preswlydd.[9]


In Scotland the equivalent đồ sộ cottager would be the crofter and the term for the building and its land would be croft.[10]


A common sight in the west of Ireland – a 19th-century stone teachín – in Carrigmanus, County Cork

Irish cottages, known as Irish: teachín, were historically the homes of farmworkers and labourers, but in recent years the term has assumed a romantic connotation especially when referring đồ sộ cottages with thatched roofs (Irish: teach ceann tuí). These thatched cottages were once đồ sộ be seen all over Ireland, but most have become dilapidated due đồ sộ newer and modern developments. However, there has been a recent revival of restoring these old cottages, with people wanting a more traditional trang chủ. Today, thatched cottages are now mostly built for the tourist industry and many can be let out as accommodation.[11]

Modern usage in Britain and Ireland[edit]

In popular modern culture, the term cottage is used in a more general and romantic context and can date from any era but the term is usually applied đồ sộ pre-modern dwellings. Older, pre-Victorian cottages tend đồ sộ have restricted height, and often have construction timber exposed, sometimes intruding into the living space. Modern renovations of such dwellings often seek đồ sộ re-expose timber purlins, rafters, posts, etc. which have been covered, in an attempt đồ sộ establish perceived historical authenticity.

Older cottages are typically modest, often semi-detached or terraced, with only four basic rooms ("two up, two down"), although subsequent modifications can create more spacious accommodation. A labourer's or fisherman's one-roomed house, often attached đồ sộ a larger property, is a particular type of cottage and is called a penty. The term cottage has also been used for a larger house that is practical rather kêu ca pretentious: see Chawton Cottage.

Outside Britain and Ireland[edit]

North America[edit]

Cottage built c. 1640, near Swedesboro, New Jersey
Wolters Filling Station in Davenport, Iowa; an example of an English Cottage-style gas station
Australian cabin (cottage)
A contemporary Australian cabin (cottage)

Although the Oxford English Dictionary states that the term cottage is used in North America đồ sộ represent "a summer residence (often on a large and sumptuous scale) at a watering-place or a health or pleasure resort," most Americans expect a cottage, particularly a summer cottage, đồ sộ be a relatively small, possibly unfinished house. Various editions of the quintessentially American Webster's Dictionary define it as "a small house; any modest country or suburban dwelling," (fifth edition) with the eleventh edition describing even a vacation cottage as "a usu. small house for vacation use."

In North America, most buildings known as cottages are used for weekend or summer getaways by đô thị dwellers. Cottage owners often rent their properties đồ sộ tourists as a source of revenue. In Saint John, U.S. Virgin Islands, most cottages are vacation rentals used for weekend or summer getaways. In Michigan, a cottage normally means a summer residence farther north near or on a lake. An example of a colonial era cottage in North America is a small fieldstone house called Boelson Cottage in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia—one of the oldest extant houses within the đô thị (c.1678–84).

In the jargon of English-speaking Quebec's real-estate industry, a cottage is any two-storey house, as opposed đồ sộ a bungalow. However, "cottages" in Eastern Canada are generally located next đồ sộ lakes, rivers, or the ocean in forested areas. They are used as a place đồ sộ spend holidays with friends and family; common activities include swimming, canoeing, waterskiing, fishing, hiking, and sailing. There are also many well-known summer colonies. Cottage living is one of the most popular tourist draws in Ontario, Canada, parts of which have come đồ sộ be known as cottage country. This term typically refers đồ sộ the north and south shores of Georgian Bay, Ontario; Muskoka, Ontario; Haliburton, Ontario; and the Kawartha Lakes, Ontario; but has also been used đồ sộ describe several other Canadian regions. The practice of renting cottages has become widespread in these regions, especially with rising property taxes for waterfront property.

What Eastern Canadians refer đồ sộ as "cottages" (seasonal-use dwellings), are generally referred đồ sộ as "cabins" in most of North America. This is most notable in the Midwest and the Western United States, and Western Canada. In much of Northern Ontario, New England, and upstate Thành Phố New York, a summer house near a body toàn thân of water is known as a camp.[citation needed] In the 1960s and 1970s, the A-Frame house became a popular cottage style in North America.

In the 1920s and 30s many gas stations were built in the style of Old World cottages. Comprising about a third of the stations built in the United States in those years, cottage-patterned facilities evoked a picturesque homeyness and were easier đồ sộ gain approval for kêu ca the more stylized or attention-grabbing designs also commonly used at the dawn of the automobile era.[12]


In nước Australia, the term "cabin" or "shack" is commonly used for a small dwelling, the former more often for a place of residence or tourist accommodation and the latter for a simple recreational shelter, typically not continuously occupied. The term cottage usually refers đồ sộ historic smaller residential buildings, commonly stone or brick, typically from Georgian or Victorian. More recently, cabins are often also referred đồ sộ tiny houses, however, cabins are built at a permanent site on proper footings, while the term tiny house often implies that the dwelling is built on a trailer platform and can be relocated.

Nordic countries[edit]


A cottage in Vihti, southern Finland

Statistics Finland defines a cottage (Finnish: mökki, Finland Swedish: stuga or villa) as "a residential building that is used as a holiday or free-time dwelling and is permanently constructed or erected on its site".[13] Finnish cottages are traditionally built of logs but other wood constructions have become common. They are usually situated close đồ sộ water and almost all have a sauna.

There are 474,277 cottages in Finland (2005), a country with 187,888 lakes and 179,584 islands, including rental holiday cottages owned by hospitality companies but excluding holiday villages and buildings on garden allotments. Reports have 4,172 new cottages built in 2005.[citation needed] Most cottages are situated in the municipalities of Kuusamo (6,196 cottages on 1 January 2006), Kuopio (5,194), Ekenäs (Tammisaari – 5,053), Mikkeli (4,649), and Mäntyharju (4,630).[citation needed]


Swedish cottage in Ljusterö, Stockholm.

The formal Swedish term for cottages is fritidshus (vacation house) or stuga, of which there are 680.000 in Sweden (2007). According đồ sộ Statistics Sweden, about 50% of the Swedish population has access đồ sộ a vacation house.[14] In everyday talk, Swedes refer đồ sộ their cottages as lantstället (the country house) or stugan (the cottage). Most vacation houses in Sweden are đồ sộ be found along the coasts and around the major cities. Prices vary a lot depending on location; a modern seaside house near Stockholm may cost 100 times as much as a simple cottage in the inner regions of northern Sweden.

Until the kết thúc of World War II, only a small wealthy Swedish elite could afford vacation houses—often both a large seaside house and a hunting cabin up north. During the rapid urbanisation in the 1950s and 1960s, many families were able đồ sộ retain their old farmhouses, village cottages, and fisherman cabins and convert them into vacation houses. In addition, economic growth made it possible even for low-income families đồ sộ buy small lots in the countryside where they could erect simple houses. Former vacation houses near the large cities have gradually been converted into permanent homes as a result of urban sprawl.

The traditional Swedish cottage is a simple paneled house made of wood and painted in red. They may contain 1–3 small bedrooms and also a small bathroom. In the combined kitchen and living room (storstuga) there is usually a fireplace. Today, many cottages have been extended with "outdoor rooms" (semi-heated external rooms with glass walls and a thin roof) and large wood terraces. As a result of the friggebod reform in 1979, many cottage owners have built additional guesthouses on their lots.


The formal Norwegian term for cottages is hytte or fritidsbolig (vacation house). In Norway, cabins are often built near leisure activities such as hunting, fishing, and outdoor life / outdoor sports, or in areas with particularly beautiful nature, such as in the woods, in the mountains, or by the sea. In the most attractive areas, it has become increasingly common with regulated fields where the cabins are very close together, in so-called "cabin villages". Chained cabins and holiday apartments are also being built here, similar đồ sộ a normal đô thị.


A typical Soviet dacha (summer house) in Resheti.
Example of what now is called "a cottage" in Russia (Mikhaylovka, Volgograd Oblast).

The first known "cottages" were built in Russia in the 19th century,[15] when British culture was popular. Today many large cities in Russia are surrounded by cottage villages. So it is legitimate đồ sộ talk about the appearance of the term "Russian cottage" - a house, comparable in size đồ sộ a British villa or even a mansion, and includes a corresponding piece of land.[16]

South Africa[edit]

A traditional 'langhuis' (long cottage) cottage in Verloren Vlei Heritage Village in the Western Cape region of South Africa

Much lượt thích in the rest of the world cottages in South Africa housed agricultural workers and their friends and families. A number of cottages were also constructed for fishermen along the West and South Coasts of the country throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Most cottages are single-storey two đồ sộ four-roomed structures sometimes with an attic for storing supplies. Most cottages in the Western Cape area of South Africa have thatched roofs and stone or adobe walls which were traditionally whitewashed. A large number of the remaining cottages in the country are listed heritage sites.[citation needed]

Notable cottages[edit]

  • Andrew Carnegie Birthplace Museum, Fife, Scotland - weaver's cottage, birthplace of philanthropist Andrew Carnegie
  • Anne Hathaway's Cottage, Warwickshire, England - childhood trang chủ of Anne Hathaway (wife of Shakespeare)
  • Arthur Cottage, County Antrim, Northern Ireland - the ancestral trang chủ of US President Chester A. Arthur
  • Bishop Asbury Cottage, Staffordshire, England - boyhood trang chủ of Methodist Episcopal Bishop Francis Asbury
  • Bron-Yr-Aur, Powys, Wales - holiday cottage used by rock band Led Zeppelin
  • Burns Cottage, Ayrshire, Scotland - trang chủ of poet Robert Burns
  • Cook's Cottage, Melbourne, nước Australia - birthplace of James Cook, taken from Yorkshire đồ sộ Victoria in 1934
  • Clouds Hill, Dorset, England - trang chủ of soldier T. E. Lawrence, ("Lawrence of Arabia")
  • Dove Cottage, Cumbria, England - trang chủ of the poet William Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy Wordsworth
  • Elgar Birthplace Museum, Worcestershire, England - cottage birthplace of composer Edward Elgar
  • Ernest Hemingway Cottage, Michigan, USA - boyhood summer trang chủ of author Ernest Hemingway
  • Herbert Hoover National Historic Site, Iowa, USA - cottage birthplace of President Herbert Hoover
  • Hill Top, Cumbria, England - trang chủ of children's author Beatrix Potter
  • Ivy Green, Alabama, USA - birthplace of deaf-blind author Helen Keller
  • La Trobe's Cottage, Melbourne, nước Australia - trang chủ of Charles La Trobe, founder of the colony of Victoria
  • Michael Collins Birthplace, County Cork, Ireland - cottage birthplace of Irish revolutionary leader Michael Collins
  • Oakhurst Cottage, Surrey, England - preserved 17th century agricultural worker's cottage
  • Swiss Cottage, Cahir, County Tipperary, Ireland - ornamental cottage designed by John Nash
  • Thomas Hardy's Cottage, Dorset, England - trang chủ of author Thomas Hardy
  • Willy Lott's Cottage, Suffolk, England - featured in several paintings by John Constable
  • York Cottage, Norfolk, England - favourite trang chủ of King George V and Mary of Teck


Thatched cottages in England[edit]

Other cottages[edit]

  • Circular cottage in Veryan, Cornwall

    Circular cottage in Veryan, Cornwall

  • Cottage amongst sand dunes in Denmark

    Cottage amongst sand dunes in Denmark

  • The Hansel and Gretel cottage at the Efteling theme park, the Netherlands

    The Hansel and Gretel cottage at the Efteling theme park, the Netherlands

  • Snow-covered cottages near Curarrehue, Chile

    Snow-covered cottages near Curarrehue, Chile

  • A cotter house (Kotten or Katen) near Solingen, Germany – used as a vacation cottage today

    A cotter house (Kotten or Katen) near Solingen, Germany – used as a vacation cottage today

  • A wooden cottage in Međimurje County, Croatia

    A wooden cottage in Međimurje County, Croatia

See also[edit]

  • Bothy – simple shelter
  • Bungalow – a type of single-storey house
  • But and ben – a simple cottage, having only an inner and outer room
  • Chalet – an alpine style building
  • Cottagecore – an aesthetic popularized on the Internet in the 2010s
  • Cottage garden
  • Cottage industry
  • Dacha – seasonal or year-round second homes located in the exurbs of Soviet and Russian cities
  • Garden real estate – property with gardens
  • Log cabin – small house built from logs
  • Mar del Plata style – a small living unit located in and around the resort đô thị of Mar del Plata, Argentina
  • Mobile home
  • Mountain hut – a building located in the mountains intended đồ sộ provide food and shelter đồ sộ mountaineers and hikers
  • Pied-à-terre – small living unit, typically located in a large city
  • Summer house – a term used in the Scandinavian countries đồ sộ describe the popular holiday homes or summer cottages
  • Vacation rental – term in the travel industry meaning renting out a furnished apartment or house on a temporary basis đồ sộ tourists as an alternative đồ sộ a hotel
  • Vernacular architecture – traditional architecture in a particular area
  • Wilderness hut – a rent-free, open dwelling place for temporary accommodation


  1. ^ YLE: Jopa kymmenet tuhannet siirtyneet kesämökeilleen vetoomuksista huolimatta, suosittujen mökkikuntien ruokakaupoissa jopa 50 prosentin kasvuja (in Finnish)
  2. ^ Daniel D. McGarry, Medieval history and civilization (1976) p 242
  3. ^ "Разновидности коттеджей. Что лучше выбрать".
  4. ^ as in domum dicti cotagii "the house of the said cottage" (the "-um" being the accusative form)
  5. ^ a b c Elmes, James (1827). On Architectural Jurisprudence; in which the Constitutions, Canons, Laws and Customs etc. London: W.Benning. pp. 178–179. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  6. ^ Alcock, Nat; Miles, Dan (2012). The Medieval Peasant House in Midland England. Oxbow Books. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-842-17506-4.
  7. ^ King, Steven; Timmins, Geffrey (2001). Making Sense of the Industrial Revolution: English Economy and Society 1700-1850. Manchester University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0719-05022-0.
  8. ^ Hammond, J L; Barbara Hammond (1912). The Village Labourer 1760–1832. London: Longman Green & Co. p. 100.
  9. ^ Lewis, Henry, ed. (1985). Welsh Dictionary. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-433402-7. pp. 136, 178
  10. ^ Collyer, Adam (1953). The Crofting Problem. Cambridge: Cambridge University. p. 25.
  11. ^ "". Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  12. ^ Granger, Susan (June 1985). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form: Lundring Service Station". National Park Service. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  13. ^ "Statistics Finland". Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  14. ^ "Statistics Sweden". Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  15. ^ Manaev, Georgy (15 June 2015). "The dacha: uniquely Russian country homes". Russia & India Report. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  16. ^ Харит М.Д. "Новый век российской усадьбы". Популярная энциклопедия архитектуры. т.1. 2001 г., Изд. АСТ (издательство), Москва, ISBN 5-17-008121-9

Further reading[edit]

Current editions:

  • Sayer, Karen. Country cottages: a cultural history (Manchester University Press, 2000).
  • Woodforde, John. The Truth About Cottages: A History and an Illustrated Guide đồ sộ 50 Types of English Cottage (I B Tauris & Co Ltd, 2007)

Out of copyright (free download):

  • Dawber, E. G. & Davie, W. G. Old cottages and farmhouses in Kent and Sussex (London, B. T. Batsford, 1900)
  • Ditchfield, Phường. H. & Quinton, A. R. The cottages and the village life of rural England (London, J.M. Dent & sons ltd., 1912).
  • Ditchfield, Phường. H. Picturesque English cottages and their doorway gardens (J.C. Winston Co., 1905).
  • Downing, A. J. Cottage Residences ( New York : J. Wiley & son, 1873).
  • Elder-Duncan, J. H. Country cottages and week-end homes (London, Cassell and teo. ltd., 1912).
  • Green, W. C. & Davie, W. G. Old cottages & farm-houses in Surrey (London, B. T. Batsford, 1908).
  • Holme, Charles (Ed). The village homes of England ("The Studio Ltd.", London, Thành Phố New York, Paris, 1912).
  • Holme, Charles. Old English country cottages (Office of "The Studio", London, Thành Phố New York, Paris, 1906).
  • Kirby, J. H. Modern cottages (self pub. n.d).
  • Papworth, John B. Rural residences: a series of designs for cottages (London, R. Ackermann, 1818).

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