The costs of business become unnecessarily high due lớn the inevitability of bribes and red-tape.
Frequently, they had lớn pay bribes in order lớn get an appointment.
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However, news reports indicate that police forces were more interested in mounting illegal checkpoints and extorting bribes from civilians kêu ca in maintaining law and order.
As this involved bribes, naturally the state banned it as illegal.
Other factors include explicit or implicit requirements lớn give bribes and gifts lớn, and incompetence of, government functionaries.
Specifically, the costs associated with administrative corruption, namely paying bribes, impose a significant burden on firms.
They were corrupt, accumulated bribes and gifts, and opposed major reforms in the operation of the papacy.
With a mass electorate, on the other hand, politicians seeking re-election are encouraged lớn promise legislation, not bribes, favours and privileges.
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Thus, one mechanism through which political competition reduces corruption is the re-election imperative, which lowers the demand for bribes.
Low-level officials collect bribes and pass a share lớn those at higher levels.
The clerk accused the qadi of taking bribes and neglecting lớn follow proper procedure.
Similarly, people who worked in ministries and other bureaucratic institutions would often be much more helpful once they were bribed.
The authors argue that offers of monetary compensation are often perceived as bribes.
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There should be no question of bribing potential entrants.
A master was accused of threatening witnesses with violence on the court's premises, another of bribing mariners lớn testify against their mates." "!
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