architect là gì

An architect, 1893.


Occupation type

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Activity sectors

Civil engineering
Structural engineering
Project management
Urban planning
Interior design
Visual arts
CompetenciesEngineering, technical knowledge, building design, planning and management skills

Education required

See professional requirements

An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings.[1] To practice architecture means đồ sộ provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose.[2] Etymologically, the term architect derives from the Latin architectus,[3] which derives from the Greek[4] (arkhi-, chief + tekton, builder), i.e., chief builder.[5]

The professional requirements for architects vary from location đồ sộ location. An architect's decisions affect public safety and thus the architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education[6] and a practicum (or internship) for practical experience đồ sộ earn a license đồ sộ practice architecture. Practical, technical, and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction though the formal study of architecture in academic institutions has played a pivotal role in the development of the profession.


Throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising đồ sộ the role of master builder. Until modern times, there was no clear distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred đồ sộ the same person, often used interchangeably.[7][8] "Architect" derives from Greek ἀρχιτέκτων (arkhitéktōn, "master builder", "chief tektōn).[9]

Filippo Brunelleschi is revered as one of the most inventive and gifted architects in history.[10]

It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional 'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century, but became increasingly available after 1500. Pencils were used for drawing by 1600. The availability of both paper and pencils allowed pre-construction drawings đồ sộ be made by professionals.[11] Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections đồ sộ describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas.[11] However, development was gradual and slow going. Until the 18th-century, buildings continued đồ sộ be designed and mix out by craftsmen, with the exception of high-status projects.[11][12]


In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification, or registration with a relevant toàn thân (often governmental), may legally practice architecture. Such licensure usually required a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period.[13] Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles were restricted đồ sộ licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer were not legally protected.

To practice architecture implies the ability đồ sộ practice independently of supervision. The term building design professional (or design professional), by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice of architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, independent, non-licensed individuals, may perform design services outside the professional restrictions such as the design houses or other smaller structures.


In the architectural profession, technical and environmental knowledge, design, and construction management, require an understanding of business as well as design. However, design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client. The commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, designing a building or several buildings, structures, and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building. Throughout the project (planning đồ sộ occupancy), the architect coordinates a design team. Structural, mechanical, and electrical engineers are hired by the client or architect, who must ensure that the work is coordinated đồ sộ construct the design.

Design role[edit]

The architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable đồ sộ the required use. The architect must meet with and put questions đồ sộ the client, in order đồ sộ ascertain all the requirements (and nuances) of the planned project. [14]

Often the full brief is not clear in the beginning. It involves a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals đồ sộ the client which may rework the terms of the brief. The "program" (or brief) is essential đồ sộ producing a project that meets all the needs of the owner. This becomes a guide for the architect in creating the design concept.

Design proposal(s) are generally expected đồ sộ be both imaginative and pragmatic. Much depends upon the time, place, finance, culture, and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place. The extent and nature of these expectations will vary. Foresight is a prerequisite when designing buildings as it is a very complex and demanding undertaking.

Any design concept during the early stage of its generation must take into tài khoản a great number of issues and variables including qualities of space(s),[15] the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections, relations, and aspects between spaces including how they are put together and the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered, tested, and reviewed at an early stage in the design đồ sộ ensure there are no setbacks (such as higher-than-expected costs) which could occur later in the project.

The site and its surrounding environment as well as the culture and history of the place, will also influence the design. The design must also balance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce (intentionally or not), aspects of mathematics and architecture, new or current architectural theory, or references đồ sộ architectural history.

A key part of the design is that the architect often must consult with engineers, surveyors and other specialists throughout the design, ensuring that aspects such as structural supports and air conditioning elements are coordinated. The control and planning of construction costs are also a part of these consultations. Coordination of the different aspects involves a high degree of specialized communication including advanced computer technology such as building information modeling (BIM), computer-aided design (CAD), and cloud-based technologies. Finally, at all times, the architect must report back đồ sộ the client who may have reservations or recommendations which might introduce further variables into the design.

Architects also giảm giá khuyến mãi with local and federal jurisdictions regarding regulations and building codes. The architect might need đồ sộ comply with local planning and zoning laws such as required setbacks, height limitations, parking requirements, transparency requirements (windows), and land use. Some jurisdictions require adherence đồ sộ design and historic preservation guidelines. Health and safety risks khuông a vital part of the current design, and in some jurisdictions, design reports and records are required đồ sộ include ongoing considerations of materials and contaminants, waste management and recycling, traffic control, and fire safety.

Means of design[edit]

Previously, architects employed drawings[11] đồ sộ illustrate and generate design proposals. While conceptual sketches are still widely used by architects,[16] computer technology has now become the industry standard.[17] Furthermore, design may include the use of photos, collages, prints, linocuts, 3 chiều scanning technology, and other truyền thông media in design production. Increasingly, computer software is shaping how architects work. BIM technology allows for the creation of a virtual building that serves as an information database for the sharing of design and building information throughout the life-cycle of the building's design, construction, and maintenance.[18] Virtual reality (VR) presentations are becoming more common for visualizing structural designs and interior spaces from the point-of-view perspective.

Environmental role[edit]

Since modern buildings are known đồ sộ place carbon into the atmosphere, increasing controls are being placed on buildings and associated technology đồ sộ reduce emissions, increase energy efficiency, and make use of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources may be designed into the proposed building by local or national renewable energy providers. As a result, the architect is required đồ sộ remain abreast of current regulations that are continually being updated. Some new developments exhibit extremely low energy use or passive solar building design.[19] However, the architect is also increasingly being required đồ sộ provide initiatives in a wider environmental sense. Examples of this include making provisions for low-energy transport, natural daylighting instead of artificial lighting, natural ventilation instead of air conditioning, pollution, and waste management, use of recycled materials, and employment of materials which can be easily recycled.

Construction role[edit]

As the design becomes more advanced and detailed, specifications and detail designs are made of all the elements and components of the building. Techniques in the production of a building are continually advancing which places a demand on the architect đồ sộ ensure that he or she remains up đồ sộ date with these advances.

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Depending on the client's needs and the jurisdiction's requirements, the spectrum of the architect's services during each construction stage may be extensive (detailed document preparation and construction review) or less involved (such as allowing a contractor đồ sộ exercise considerable design-build functions).

Architects typically put projects đồ sộ tender on behalf of their clients, advise them on the award of the project đồ sộ a general contractor, facilitate and administer a contract of agreement which is often between the client and the contractor. This contract is legally binding and covers a wide range of aspects including the insurance and commitments of all stakeholders, the status of the design documents, provisions for the architect's access, and procedures for the control of the works as they proceed. Depending on the type of contract utilized, provisions for further sub-contract tenders may be required. The architect may require that some elements are covered by a warranty which specifies the expected life and other aspects of the material, product, or work.

In most jurisdictions, prior notification đồ sộ the relevant authority must be given before commencement of the project, giving the local authority notice đồ sộ carry out independent inspections. The architect will then review and inspect the progress of the work in coordination with the local authority.

The architect will typically review contractor cửa hàng drawings and other submittals, prepare and issue site instructions, and provide Certificates for Payment đồ sộ the contractor (see also Design-bid-build) which is based on the work done as well as any materials and other goods purchased or hired in the future. In the United Kingdom and other countries, a quantity surveyor is often part of the team đồ sộ provide cost consulting. With large, complex projects, an independent construction manager is sometimes hired đồ sộ assist in the design and management of the construction.

In many jurisdictions, mandatory certification or assurance of the completed work or part of works, is required. This demand for certification entails a high degree of risk; therefore, regular inspections of the work as it progresses on site is required đồ sộ ensure that the design is in compliance itself as well as following all relevant statutes and permissions.

Alternate practice and specializations[edit]

Recent decades have seen the rise of specializations within the profession. Many architects and architectural firms focus on certain project types (e.g. healthcare, retail, public housing, and sự kiện management), technological expertise, or project delivery methods. Some architects specialize in building code, building envelope, sustainable design, technical writing, historic preservation(US) or conservation (UK), and accessibility.

Many architects elect đồ sộ move into real estate (property) development, corporate facilities planning, project management, construction management, chief sustainability officers interior design, đô thị planning, user experience design, and design research.

Professional requirements

Although there are variations in each location, most of the world's architects are required đồ sộ register with the appropriate jurisdiction. Architects are typically required đồ sộ meet three common requirements: education, experience, and examination.

Basic educational requirement generally consist of a university degree in architecture. The experience requirement for degree candidates is usually satisfied by a practicum or internship (usually two đồ sộ three years). Finally, a Registration Examination or a series of exams is required prior đồ sộ licensure.

Professionals who engaged in the design and supervision of construction projects prior đồ sộ the late 19th century were not necessarily trained in a separate architecture program in an academic setting. Instead, they often trained under established architects. Prior đồ sộ modern times, there was no distinction between architects and engineers and the title used varied depending on geographical location. They often carried the title of master builder or surveyor[citation needed] after serving a number of years as an apprentice (such as Sir Christopher Wren). The formal study of architecture in academic institutions played a pivotal role in the development of the profession as a whole, serving as a focal point for advances in architectural technology and theory. The use of "Architect" or abbreviations such as "Ar." as a title attached đồ sộ a person's name was regulated by law in some countries.


Architects' fee structure was typically based on a percentage of construction value, as a rate per unit area of the proposed construction, hourly rates, or a fixed lump sum fee. Combination of these structures was also common. Fixed fees were usually based on a project's allocated construction cost and could range between 4 and 12% of new construction cost for commercial and institutional projects, depending on a project's size and complexity. Residential projects ranged from 12 đồ sộ 20%. Renovation projects typically commanded higher percentages such as 15-20%.[20]

Overall billings for architectural firms range widely, depending on their location and economic climate. Billings have traditionally been dependent on the local economic conditions, but with rapid globalization, this is becoming less of a factor for large international firms. Salaries could also vary depending on experience, position within the firm (i.e. staff architect, partner, or shareholder, etc.), and the size and location of the firm.

Professional organizations[edit]

A number of national professional organizations exist đồ sộ promote career and business development in architecture.

  • The International Union of Architects (UIA)
  • The American Institute of Architects (AIA) US
  • Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) UK
  • Architects Registration Board (ARB) UK
  • The Australian Institute of Architects (AIA) Australia
  • The South African Institute of Architects (SAIA) South Africa
  • Association of Consultant Architects (ACA) UK [21]
  • Association of Licensed Architects (ALA) US
  • The Consejo Profesional de Arquitectura hắn Urbanismo (CPAU) Argentina
  • Indian Institute of Architects (IIA) & Council of Architecture (COA) India
  • The National Organization of Minority Architects (NOMA) US [22]

Prizes, awards[edit]

Ceremony for the 2019 Aga Khan Award for Architecture, presenting the award for the Arcadia Education Centre

A wide variety of prizes is awarded by national professional associations and other bodies, recognizing accomplished architects, their buildings, structures, and professional careers.

The most lucrative award an architect can receive is the Pritzker Prize, sometimes termed the "Nobel Prize for architecture." The inaugural Pritzker Prize winner was Philip Johnson who was cited "for 50 years of imagination and vitality embodied in a myriad of museums, theatres libraries, houses gardens and corporate structure". The Pritzker Prize has been awarded for forty-two straight editions without interruption, and there are now 22 countries with at least one winning architect. Other prestigious architectural awards are the Royal Gold Medal, the AIA Gold Medal (USA), AIA Gold Medal (Australia), and the Praemium Imperiale.[23]

Architects in the UK, who have made contributions đồ sộ the profession through design excellence or architectural education, or have in some other way advanced the profession, might until 1971 be elected Fellows of the Royal Institute of British Architects and can write FRIBA after their name if they feel ví inclined. Those elected đồ sộ chartered membership of the RIBA after 1971 may use the initials RIBA but cannot use the old ARIBA and FRIBA. An Honorary Fellow may use the initials, Hon. FRIBA. and an International Fellow may use the initials Int. FRIBA. Architects in the US, who have made contributions đồ sộ the profession through design excellence or architectural education, or have in some other way advanced the profession, are elected Fellows of the American Institute of Architects and can write FAIA after their name. Architects in Canada, who have made outstanding contributions đồ sộ the profession through contribution đồ sộ research, scholarship, public service, or professional standing đồ sộ the good of architecture in Canada, or elsewhere, may be recognized as a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and can write FRAIC after their name. In Hong Kong, those elected đồ sộ chartered membership may use the initial HKIA, and those who have made a special contribution after nomination and election by The Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA), may be elected as fellow members of HKIA and may use FHKIA after their name.

Architects in the Philippines and Filipino communities overseas (whether they are Filipinos or not), especially those who also profess other jobs at the same time, are addressed and introduced as Architect, rather than vãn Sir/Madam in speech or Mr./Mrs./Ms. (G./Gng./Bb. in Filipino) before surnames. That word is used either in itself or before the given name or surname.

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See also[edit]


  1. ^ "What's the difference between an architect and a building designer?". BUILD. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  2. ^ "The Nova Scotia Legislature". Office of the Legislative Counsel. Nova Scotia House of Assembly. 2006. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Etymology in Architecture: Tracing the Language of Design đồ sộ its Roots". ArchDaily. 2018-07-30. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  4. ^ "The Meaning of the Word Architect | The History of Design-Build". New England Design & Construction. 2019-10-24. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  5. ^ Harper, Douglas. "architect". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  6. ^ Czcibor-Piotrowski, Andrzej (2000). "The Profession and Discipline of Architecture: Practice and Education". Discipline of Architecture. University of Minnesota Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-8166-3665-5. JSTOR 10.5749/j.cttttqm2.18.
  7. ^ Murray, Peter (1986). Burckhardt, Jacob (ed.). The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 242. ISBN 0-8052-1082-2.
  8. ^ "Civil Engineering Defined - Civil Engineering Definitions and History". SMW Engineering Group, Inc. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  9. ^ Harper, Douglas. "architect". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 December 2022. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  10. ^ "Filippo Brunelleschi". Totally History. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d Pacey, Arnold (2007). Medieval Architectural Drawing: English Craftsmen's Methods and Their Later Persistence (c.1200-1700). Stroud: Tempus Publishing. pp. 225–227. ISBN 978-0-7524-4404-8.
  12. ^ Vardhan, Harsh. "Different types of work by architects". Archibuddy. Archived from the original on 17 March 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  13. ^ "The Basics". NCARB - National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. 2017-01-23. Retrieved 2020-04-29.
  14. ^ "Architects - What tự Architects do?". Retrieved 2020-04-29.
  15. ^ Üngür, Erdem. "Space: The undefinable space of architecture". Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  16. ^ Rosenfield, Karissa (5 June 2015). "17 Napkin Sketches by Famous Architects". ArchDaily. ISSN 0719-8884. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  17. ^ Rybczynski, Witold (30 March 2011). "Think Before You Build". The Slate Group. Graham Holdings Company. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  18. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions About the National BIM Standard-United States". National BIM Standard. National Institute of Building Sciences. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  19. ^ "What is a Passive House?".
  20. ^ "RIBA".
  21. ^ Association of Consultant Architects
  22. ^ National Organization of Minority Architects
  23. ^ "5 Highly Prestigious Awards in Architecture That You Should Know". 2016-11-07. Retrieved 2020-04-30.

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