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Alumni (SG: alumnus (MASC) or alumna (FEM)) are former students or graduates of a school, college, or university, . The feminine plural alumnae is sometimes used for groups of women. The word is Latin and means "one who is being (or has been) nourished". The term is not synonymous with "graduate"; one can be an alumnus without graduating (Burt Reynolds, alumnus but not graduate of Florida State University, is an example). The term is sometimes used đồ sộ refer đồ sộ a former employee or thành viên of an organization, contributor, or inmate.
The Latin noun alumnus means "foster son" or "pupil". It is derived from PIE *h₂el- (grow, nourish), and it is a variant of the Latin verb alere "to nourish". Separate, but from the same root, is the adjective almus "nourishing", found in the phrase Alma Mater, a title for a person's trang chính university.
In Latin, alumnus is a legal term (Roman law) đồ sộ describe a child placed in fosterage. According đồ sộ John Boswell, the word "is nowhere defined in relation đồ sộ status, privilege, or obligation." Citing the research of Henri Leclercq, Teresa Nani, and Beryl Rawson, who studied the many inscriptions about alumni, Boswell concluded that it referred đồ sộ exposed children who were taken into a household where they were "regarded as somewhere between an heir and a slave, partaking in different ways of both categories." Despite the warmth of feelings between the parent and child, "an alumnus might be treated both as a beloved child and as a household servant."
| -nee, |
also US: -nye
An alumnus or alumna is a former student or a graduate of an educational institution (school, college, university). According đồ sộ the United States Department of Education, the term alumnae is used in conjunction with either women's colleges or a female group of students. The term alumni is used in conjunction with either men's colleges, a male group of students, or a mixed group of students:
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In accordance with the rules of grammar governing the inflexion of nouns in the Romance languages, the masculine plural alumni is correctly used for groups composed of both sexes: the alumni of Princeton University.
The term is sometimes informally shortened đồ sộ "alum" (optional plural "alums").
Many universities have alumni offices that coordinate fundraising and offer benefits đồ sộ registered alumni. Alumni reunions are popular events at many institutions. These may be organized by alumni offices or by alumni associations, and are often social occasions for fundraising. Full membership of alumni associations is sometimes limited just đồ sộ graduates rather than vãn all alumni, e.g. at Harvard University.
In British English, the terms "old boy" or "old girl" are often preferred for a former pupil of a primary or secondary school, while universities refer đồ sộ their former students as alumni.
Some universities, including the University of Cambridge, the University of California, San Francisco and Yale University, include former postdoctoral researchers as alumni, in recognition of the trainee status of such positions. Others, such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, consider them 'associate alumni', without full access đồ sộ alumni benefits.
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- Category:Alumni by educational institution
- Alumni Cantabrigienses: A Biographical List of All Known Students, Graduates and Holders of Office at the University of Cambridge, from the Earliest Times đồ sộ 1900
- Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford
- ^ "The State Of Corporate Alumni : 2017 Survey Results". EnterpriseAlumni - Large Organization Alumni & Retiree Management. 2017-10-02. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
- ^ "Alumni – Definition from the Free Merriam Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
1: A person who has attended or has graduated from a particular school, college, or university. 2: a person who is a former thành viên, employee, contributor, or inmate
- ^ "Alumnus – definition of alumnus by Macmillan dictionary". Macmillandictionary.com. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
Someone who was a student at a particular school, college, or university
- ^ Merriam-Webster: alumnus...
- ^ For example, Digest 40, 2, 14
- ^ Boswell 1988, pp. 116.
- ^ Boswell 1988, pp. 117–119.
- ^ Collins English Dictionary (13th ed.). HarperCollins. 2018. ISBN 978-0-008-28437-4.
- ^ "alumna". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2022-05-15.
- ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
- ^ "Archived: Women's Colleges in the United States: History, Issues, and Challenges". Ed.gov. Archived from the original on 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
- ^ "alumni – Definitions from Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
- ^ "alum." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. 1 December 2006. Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/alum
- ^ "About the Harvard Alumni Association". Harvard Alumni Association. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
Members of the HAA include recipients of all degrees granted by the University and Radcliffe College, as well as the members of all University faculties. Others whose names appear on the alumni records of the University, but who have not received degrees, are associate members and program participants. They may attend meetings and take part in any activities of the HAA but may not vote for Overseers of the University or directors of the HAA.
- ^ "old boy - noun". www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
- ^ "old girl - noun". www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 16 August 2023.
- ^ "Alumni benefits extended đồ sộ thousands of former researchers". University of Cambridge. 10 June năm ngoái.
- ^ "Alumni". UCSF Office for Postdoctoral Scholars. Retrieved 16 August 2023.
- ^ "Leaving Yale". Yale University Office for Postdoctoral Affairs. Retrieved 16 August 2023.
- ^ Hazel Sive; Claude Canizares; Maria Zuber (November 2013). "The Status of MIT's Postdoctoral Researchers". MIT Faculty Newsletter. Vol. XXVI, no. 2.
- Boswell, John (1988). The Kindness of Strangers:The Abandonment of Children in Western Europe from Late Antiquity đồ sộ the Renaissance. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 9780226067124.
- The dictionary definition of alumni at Wiktionary