admire là gì

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Admiration by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1897

Admiration is a social emotion felt by observing people of competence, talent, or skill exceeding standards.[1] Admiration facilitates social learning in groups.[2] Admiration motivates self-improvement through learning from role-models.[3]

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Sara Algoe and Jonathan Haidt[1] include admiration in the category of other-praising emotions, alongside awe, elevation, and gratitude. They propose that admiration is the emotion we feel towards non-moral excellence (i.e., witnessing an act of excellent skill), while elevation is the emotion we feel towards moral excellence (i.e., witnessing someone perform an act of exceeding virtue). Other authors term both these emotions as admiration, distinguishing between admiration for skill and admiration for virtue.[4] Richard Smith[3] categorises admiration as an other-focused assimilative emotion, leading people to lớn aspire to lớn be lượt thích (assimilate to) those they admire. He contrasts admiration with envy (an other-focused contrastive emotion), proposing that envy leads us to lớn feel frustrated about the competence of others, while admiration is uplifting and motivating.


Learning of skills has been so sánh important to lớn our evolution that we have come to lớn feel positively about talented or skillful people, in order to lớn approach them and copy their actions.[5] Admiration is the emotion that facilitates learning in social groups.[2]

Relation to lớn attainability[edit]

Following from the view that admiration's function is learning and self-improvement,[2] some authors have proposed that admiration will only activate when we believe improvement is possible for us,[1][3] however one empirical study has suggested the opposite, that admiration is akin to lớn passive contemplation of another's superiority, while envy is the motivating emotion which activates when a better performance is attainable to lớn us.[6]

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Associated behaviours[edit]

Behaviours concerning the self[edit]

Witnessing admirable acts has been shown to lớn increase motivation for self-improvement in the domain name of witnessed excellence (e.g., sporting performance), but also a more general motivation to lớn work towards achieving one's own life goals.[1] Using fMRI, admiration has been shown to lớn be related with higher-level cognitive processes involved in motivation (e.g., planning, pursuit of goals), but also relates to lớn lower-level activating mechanisms, demonstrating that admiration is a physically energising emotion.[4]

Behaviours concerning the relationship[edit]

Admiration is also associated with a tendency to lớn praise the admired act to lớn others,[1] and a desire for tương tác and proximity with the admired.[7]

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Admiration has also been studied in an intergroup context by Susan Fiske and her colleagues. They propose that admiration is the emotion we feel towards those social groups we perceive as competent (or high-status) and warm (friendly and cooperative) (e.g., in studies involving students in the US, an example of a group perceived as competent and warm is the British).[8] Admiration is related to lớn intentions to lớn associate, cooperate with, and help members from groups that are admired.[7]

See also[edit]


Wikimedia Commons has truyền thông media related to lớn Admiration.

  1. ^ a b c d e Algoe, S. B., & Haidt, J. (2009). Witnessing excellence in action: The ‘other-praising’ emotions of elevation, gratitude, and admiration. The journal of positive psychology, 4(2), 105–127.
  2. ^ a b c Haidt, J., & Seder, Phường. (2009). Admiration and Awe. Oxford Companion to lớn Affective Science (pp. 4–5). New York: Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ a b c Smith, R. H. (2000). Assimilative and contrastive emotional reactions to lớn upward and downward social comparisons. Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research, 173–200.
  4. ^ a b Immordino-Yang, M. H., McColl, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. (2009). Neural correlates of admiration and compassion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(19), 8021.
  5. ^ Henrich, J., & Gil-White, F. J. (2001). The evolution of prestige: Freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission. Evolution and human behavior, 22(3), 165–196.
  6. ^ Van De Ven, N., Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (2011). Why Envy Outperforms Admiration. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(6), 784–795.
  7. ^ a b Cuddy, A. J. ., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, Phường. (2007). The BIAS map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(4), 631.
  8. ^ Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, Phường., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878–902.