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Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally 'for this'. In English, it typically signifies a solution for a specific purpose, problem, or task rather than vãn a generalized solution adaptable to tướng collateral instances. (Compare with a priori.)
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Common examples are ad hoc committees and commissions created at the national or international level for a specific task. In other fields, the term could refer to tướng, for example, a military unit created under special circumstances (see task force), a handcrafted network protocol (e.g., ad hoc network), a temporary banding together of geographically-linked franchise locations (of a given national brand) to tướng issue advertising coupons, or a purpose-specific equation.
Ad hoc can also be an adjective describing the temporary, provisional, or improvised methods to tướng khuyến mãi with a particular problem, the tendency of which has given rise to tướng the noun adhocism.
Style guides disagree on whether Latin phrases lượt thích ad hoc should be italicized. The trend is not to tướng use italics. For example, The Chicago Manual of Style recommends that familiar Latin phrases that are listed in the Webster's Dictionary, including "ad hoc", not be italicized.
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In science and philosophy, ad hoc means the addition of extraneous hypotheses to tướng a theory to tướng save it from being falsified. Ad hoc hypotheses compensate for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified sườn.
Scientists are often skeptical of scientific theories that rely on frequent, unsupported adjustments to tướng sustain them. Ad hoc hypotheses are often characteristic of pseudo-scientific subjects such as homeopathy.
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In the military
In the military, ad hoc units are created during unpredictable situations, when the cooperation between different units is suddenly needed for fast action, or from remnants of previous units which have been overrun or otherwise whittled down.
In national and sub-national governance, ad hoc bodies may be established to tướng khuyến mãi with specific problems not easily accommodated by the current structure of governance or to tướng address multi-faceted issues spanning several areas of governance. In the UK and other commonwealth countries, ad hoc Royal Commissions  may be mix up to tướng address specific questions as directed by parliament.
The term ad hoc networking typically refers to tướng a system of network elements that combine to tướng sườn a network requiring little or no planning.
- Ad hoc testing
- Ad infinitum
- Ad libitum
- House rule
- Russell's teapot
- Inductive reasoning
- Confirmation bias
- Cherry picking
- ^ American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms, 2nd Edition
- ^ Yateendra Joshi, " Latin phrases in scientific writing: italics or not", editage Insights, January 14, 2014
- ^ "When to tướng italicize foreign words and phrases". Grammarpartyblog.com. 23 February 2012. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- ^ "Italics". The Economist. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- ^ Carroll, Robert T. (23 February 2012), "Ad hoc hypothesis", The Skeptic's Dictionary, John Wiley & Sons, retrieved 27 May 2013
- ^ "Royal commissions". Đài truyền hình BBC. 27 October 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Rheingold, Howard. (2002), Smart Mobs: the Next Social Revolution, Perseus
- The dictionary definition of ad hoc at Wiktionary