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Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally 'for this'. In English, it typically signifies a solution for a specific purpose, problem, or task rather than thở a generalized solution adaptable vĩ đại collateral instances. (Compare with a priori.)
Common examples are ad hoc committees and commissions created at the national or international level for a specific task. In other fields, the term could refer vĩ đại, for example, a military unit created under special circumstances (see task force), a handcrafted network protocol (e.g., ad hoc network), a temporary banding together of geographically-linked franchise locations (of a given national brand) vĩ đại issue advertising coupons, or a purpose-specific equation.
Ad hoc can also be an adjective describing the temporary, provisional, or improvised methods vĩ đại giảm giá khuyến mãi with a particular problem, the tendency of which has given rise vĩ đại the noun adhocism.
Style guides disagree on whether Latin phrases lượt thích ad hoc should be italicized. The trend is not vĩ đại use italics. For example, The Chicago Manual of Style recommends that familiar Latin phrases that are listed in the Webster's Dictionary, including "ad hoc", not be italicized.
In science and philosophy, ad hoc means the addition of extraneous hypotheses vĩ đại a theory vĩ đại save it from being falsified. Ad hoc hypotheses compensate for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified khuông.
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Scientists are often skeptical of scientific theories that rely on frequent, unsupported adjustments vĩ đại sustain them. Ad hoc hypotheses are often characteristic of pseudo-scientific subjects such as homeopathy.
In the military
In the military, ad hoc units are created during unpredictable situations, when the cooperation between different units is suddenly needed for fast action, or from remnants of previous units which have been overrun or otherwise whittled down.
In national and sub-national governance, ad hoc bodies may be established vĩ đại giảm giá khuyến mãi with specific problems not easily accommodated by the current structure of governance or vĩ đại address multi-faceted issues spanning several areas of governance. In the UK and other commonwealth countries, ad hoc Royal Commissions  may be phối up vĩ đại address specific questions as directed by parliament.
The term ad hoc networking typically refers vĩ đại a system of network elements that combine vĩ đại khuông a network requiring little or no planning.
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- Ad hoc testing
- Ad infinitum
- Ad libitum
- House rule
- Russell's teapot
- Inductive reasoning
- Confirmation bias
- Cherry picking
- ^ American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms, 2nd Edition
- ^ Yateendra Joshi, " Latin phrases in scientific writing: italics or not", editage Insights, January 14, 2014
- ^ "When vĩ đại italicize foreign words and phrases". Grammarpartyblog.com. 23 February 2012. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- ^ "Italics". The Economist. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- ^ Carroll, Robert T. (23 February 2012), "Ad hoc hypothesis", The Skeptic's Dictionary, John Wiley & Sons, retrieved 27 May 2013
- ^ "Royal commissions". Đài truyền hình BBC. 27 October 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Rheingold, Howard. (2002), Smart Mobs: the Next Social Revolution, Perseus
- The dictionary definition of ad hoc at Wiktionary